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Matching Genotypes and Serotonergic Medications for Alcoholism

2014-08-27 03:14:06 | BioPortfolio

Summary

Sertraline, a serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) that increases basal serotonin levels, was shown to reduce alcohol consumption in lower risk/severity and later onset (LOA) but not higher risk/severity earlier onset alcoholic individuals (EOA). By contrast, ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor reduced alcohol consumption in EOAs but not LOAs. To explain this contrast in clinical efficacy, one approach suggests that differential serotonergic response is based on a functional polymorphism of the 5-HTTLPR promoter region of the serotonin re-uptake transporter (SERT). These alleles have typically been classified as biallelic genotypes: LL, SS and SL. The LL variant is postulated to be associated with EOA and the SS/SL variants associated with LOA. To test this hypothesis the investigators therefore propose to match and mismatch serotonergic treatments to genetic polymorphic variants [in 132 non-treatment seeking alcohol dependent volunteers] in a double-blind placebo controlled 2 x 2 design human laboratory study. The investigators propose to randomize non-treatment-seeking alcohol dependent persons based on their 5'-HTTLPR variant genotype (LL or SS/SL) into one of two counterbalanced arms: participants in the first arm (LL) will first receive one drug (either 200mg/day of sertraline or ondansetron 0.5mg/day) for three weeks followed by an alcohol self-administration experiment (ASAE), [with a 1 week down-titration period if sertraline received first, during the first week of the "placebo period"] then receive placebo for two more weeks (this will be a single-blind portion to use as a comparison group and to wash out the pharmacodynamic effects of the first drug) followed by a second ASAE. Participants will then receive the second drug for three weeks followed by a third ASAE [all will receive medication for an additional 1 week period and those receiving sertraline last will be down-titrated]. Participants in the second arm (SS/SL) will receive the same medications in the same balanced design. Individuals in both arms will receive weekly medication management to enhance medication adherence. The long-term objective of this research is to prospectively examine serotonergic treatment matching for alcohol dependence based on genotyping. Of equal importance, the investigators also recognize the strong contribution of additional genetic and environmental influences on alcohol consumption.

Description

Medications and genetics have been identified as research priorities by NIAAA. The present application proposes to test two genetic-drug matching hypotheses to better understand heterogeneity among alcoholics. Previous basic science, treatment and genetic research suggests that active drinkers with the LL genetic variant of the serotonin transporter 5'-HTTLPR (a hypothesized genetic risk factor for early onset alcoholism) will respond better to ondansetron than sertraline or placebo. Conversely, active drinkers with the SS or SL genetic variant of the serotonin transporter 5'-HTTLPR (a hypothesized genetic risk factor for late onset alcoholism) will respond better to sertraline than ondansetron or placebo. The objective of this research is to match and mismatch serotonergic treatments to genetic polymorphic variants in a double-blind placebo controlled 2 x 2 design laboratory study where the 2 arms will be counterbalanced. The specific aims are to investigate: (1) whether LL-carriers receiving ondansetron results in a significant reduction in alcohol consumption during an alcohol self-administration experiment (ASAE) and during the period of treatment; (2) whether SL and SS-carriers receiving sertraline will result in a significant reduction in alcohol consumption during an ASAE and during the period of treatment; (3) examine mechanism of action for craving and subjective effects during the ASAE sessions: (4) whether there is a reduction in alcohol consumption during the ASAEs in the presence of the LG, and LA 5-HTTLPR variants and when LL participants receive ondansetron or when LL participants receive sertraline; (5) if the primary aims are moderated by the presence of the C (-1019) G polymorphism of the 5-HT1A gene promoter. We propose to randomize 132 non-treatment-seeking alcohol dependent participants based on their 5'-HTTLPR variant genotype (LL or SS/SL) into one of two counterbalanced arms: e.g. subjects in the first arm will first receive one drug (either 200mg/day of sertraline or ondansetron 0.5mg/day) for three weeks followed by an ASAE, then receive placebo for three weeks (this will be a single-blind portion to use as a comparison group and to wash out the pharmacodynamic effects of the first drug) followed by a second ASAE. Finally, participants will receive the second drug for three weeks followed by a third ASAE. Volunteers in the second arm will receive the same medications in a counter-balanced fashion. There will be a 1-week down titration after the first and third segments for all subjects. The long-term objective of this proposed research is to examine serotonergic treatment matching for alcohol dependence based on genotyping, and begin to investigate patient variation when matched prospectively with one serotonergic treatment or the other.

Study Design

Allocation: Randomized, Control: Placebo Control, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator), Primary Purpose: Diagnostic

Conditions

Alcoholism

Intervention

Ondansetron and Sertraline

Location

Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies
Providence
Rhode Island
United States
02912

Status

Recruiting

Source

Brown University

Results (where available)

View Results

Links

Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:14:06-0400

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)

A selective serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of depression.

A competitive serotonin type 3 receptor antagonist. It is effective in the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs, including cisplatin, and has reported anxiolytic and neuroleptic properties.

Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts research focused on improving the treatment and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems to reduce the health, social, and economic consequences of this disease. NIAAA, NIMH, and NIDA were created as coequal institutes within the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration in 1974. It was established within the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH in 1992.

A plant genus of the family FABACEAE a common weed of the southeast US. There has been folk use for alcoholism and liver protection. It contains puerarin, kakkalide, daidzein (isoflavonoids), and kudzusaponins (oleanene-type triterpene glycosides).

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