Advertisement

Topics

Intravenous Tranexamic Acid and Intraoperative Visualization During Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

2014-08-27 03:14:07 | BioPortfolio

Summary

Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is an effective treatment of sinus disease. FESS is carried out using cameras to view the surgical field. Bleeding during the surgery can lead to poor surgical field visualization. Poor visualization has been associated with worse surgical outcomes. Tranexamic acid is a safe and effective agent used to achieve hemostasis during operative procedures. The current study is a randomized controlled trial in patients undergoing FESS to compare the effects of tranexamic acid versus placebo and the effects on surgical field visualization and adverse events.

Description

Study Objectives: The current study will assess the effect of tranexamic acid on intraoperative bleeding and surgical outcomes during functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

Background: Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic that prevents the activation of plasminogen to plasmin. Plasmin is responsible for the degradation of fibrin clots. This is the mechanism by which tranexamic acid prevents blood clot breakdown and reduces operative bleeding. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery, or FESS, is a widely used surgical technique to treat sinusitis and other diseases of the nose and nasal cavities. Bleeding during FESS can hinder surgical progress and has been associated with an increase in complications.

Methods: The current study is randomized, double-blind and placebo- controlled. Study sample size will be calculated based on a previous study of topical intranasal TA. Participants undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery will be recruited for the study during a preoperative outpatient clinic visit. Each participant will be randomized to a group receiving either tranexamic acid or normal saline bolus immediately prior to the operation. Inclusion criteria for the study are as follows: patients must be diagnosed with either 1. Chronic rhinosinositis with polyposis (CRSwP) or 2. Chronic hyperplastic sinusitis. Patients must have an ASA classification of I or II and must be undergoing bilateral FESS as treatment for one of the above diagnoses. Exclusion criteria include patients with hypertension (treated or untreated), thrombotic diathesis, vascular disease, risk factors for vascular disease, colorblindness, renal failure, and those who may be pregnant. These exclusion criteria are based on the potential risks of using tranexamic acid in these patients (see safety data information section below). The exclusion criteria for hypertension will include anyone who has been diagnosed previously with hypertension or has been on anti-hypertensive medications for this diagnosis. The hypertensive patients will be excluded due to the difficulties maintaining standardized anesthesia protocol (such as mean arterial pressure) in these patients. The authors of the current study will not be testing for pregnancy. Patients will be asked the date of their last menstrual period as per the standard pre-operative questionnaire, any patients who may be pregnant would not only be excluded from the trial but would not undergo a general anesthetic for an elective procedure due to the risk of preterm labour. The diagnosis of renal failure will be determined by patient history, the current study will not require systematic lab diagnosis to calculate renal function. The study will keep a record of the surgeon(s) and residents present during surgery to evaluate potential differences during the data analysis. The study will blind both the surgeon(s) and anesthesiologist as to what each patient received. The day before a scheduled operation of a patient enrolled in the study, the pharmacy will determine if the patient is to receive TA or placebo based on the randomization table. The bolus of TA is prepared according to patient weight (10mg/kg loading dose). The patients receiving placebo will receive an infusion of normal saline of the same volume. Patients will receive the TA or saline infusion on call to the operating room, approximately 30 minutes before onset of the operation. The patients would also receive a continuous infusion of 1mg/kg per hour or TA preparation or normal saline for the duration of the operation. The current study will use a standardized anesthesia protocol using universally accepted parameters. The operation will be carried out using primarily inhalational anesthetic. End- tidal CO2 will be maintained between the target ranges of 30-35 mmHg. The head of the bed will be elevated to 15 degrees. The target range for the mean arterial pressure will be 60-70 mmHg.

Outcome Measures: The outcome measures for the current study are as follows: 1. The Wormald grading scale, this is a validated instrument used to assess intraoperative bleeding during video endoscopy sinus surgery. Dr. Wright will apply the Wormald grading scale intraoperatively. 2. Perioperative Sinus Endoscopy (POSE) scoring system, a systematic visualization evaluation of the sinuses. 3. Lund- Kennedy endoscopic reporting system, a validated staging system for sinus disease. 4. Lund- MacKay CT score, used for radiologic evaluation of sinus disease, 5. Number of sinuses and which sinuses were involved in the operative procedure. 6. Surgical time. 7. Total blood loss (monitoring of suctioned blood and monitoring of sponges and throat packs used during the operation. 8. Completeness of the surgical procedure as affected by bleeding.

Safety of Tranexamic Acid: A Cochrane review of fifty-three trials compared TXA with control, with a total of 3836 patients. Of these, 2020 were randomised to TXA and 1816 were randomised to a control group.1 The use of TXA was not associated with an increased risk of death (RR 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.32 to 1.12). The use of TXA was not associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.90, stroke (RR 1.25, 95% CI 0.47 to 3.31, DVT (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.61), pulmonary embolus (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.17 to 1.76), or renal dysfunction (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.16 to 3.32). The Cochrane review did not provide absolute numbers on these outcomes except that two patients out of 422 undergoing cardiac surgery developed a DVT, both were from the control arms to two different trials. Additionally, two patients out of 569 undergoing cardiac surgery developed a pulmonary embolus; again both were from the control arms of two separate trials.

In a meta-analysis of patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty, TXA did not increase the risk of deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, thrombotic cerebral vascular accident, or myocardial infarction (OR 0.98, 95% CI: 0.45-2.12).2 Case reports have associated tranexamic acid with isolated cases of retinopathy3, visual impairment4, skin blistering5 and bullous eruptions of the skin6.

The compendium of pharmaceuticals and specialties (CPS) advised against the use of TXA in patients with vascular disease, risk factors for vascular disease, colorblindness, renal failure, and those who may be pregnant. The CPS did not provide any referenced data about the incidence of adverse events with the use of TXA.

Study Design

Allocation: Randomized, Control: Placebo Control, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor), Primary Purpose: Treatment

Conditions

Chronic Rhinosinositis With Polyposis

Intervention

Tranexamic Acid, Normal Saline (placebo)

Location

University of Alberta Hospital, Royal Alexandra Hospital
Edmonton
Alberta
Canada
T6G 2B7

Status

Recruiting

Source

University of Alberta

Results (where available)

View Results

Links

Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:14:07-0400

Clinical Trials [2893 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Tranexamic Acid in Cyanotic Heart Defects

Pediatric patients suffering cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) are prone to excessive surgical bleeding in the early postoperative period and the need for transfusion when exposed t...

Topical (Intra-Articular) Tranexamic Acid and Transfusion Rates Following Hip Hemiarthroplasty

This study is a double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of 1 gram of topically applied tranexamic acid vs. saline placebo for the reduction of transfusion ...

The Effects of Tranexamic Acid on Blood Loss During Orthognathic Surgery

This study seeks to answer the question: Does a single pre-operative dose of tranexamic acid have a statistically significant reduction in blood loss during orthognathic surgery? If it do...

The Effect of Tranexamic Acid on Postpartum Hemorrhage During and After Cesarean Delivery

Intravenous Tranexamic acid is used to reduce the hemorrhage during and after cesarean delivery in a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial.

Non-Idiopathic Scoliosis Treated With Tranexamic Acid

Investigation of tranexamic acid (TXA) for reducing perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirement in pediatric patients with secondary scoliosis undergoing posterior spinal fusion.

PubMed Articles [18207 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Treatment of melasma using tranexamic acid: what's known and what's next.

Tranexamic acid is a procoagulant agent that is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of menorrhagia and to prevent hemorrhage in patients with hemophilia undergoing tooth extr...

Low-Dose Epinephrine Plus Tranexamic Acid Reduces Early Postoperative Blood Loss and Inflammatory Response: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

The reductions of perioperative blood loss and inflammatory response are important in total knee arthroplasty. Tranexamic acid reduced blood loss and the inflammatory response in several studies. Howe...

Tranexamic Acid Dosing for Cardiac Surgical Patients With Chronic Renal Dysfunction: A New Dosing Regimen.

Tranexamic acid (TXA) is a common antifibrinolytic agent used to minimize bleeding in cardiac surgery. Up to 50% cardiac surgical patients have chronic renal dysfunction (CRD). Optimal dosing of TXA i...

Comparison of the efficacy of intravenous tranexamic acid with and without topical administration versus placebo in urgent endoscopy rate for acute gastrointestinal bleeding: A double-blind randomized controlled trial.

Tranexamic acid (TXA), a synthetic antifibrinolytic drug, is effective as a treatment for serious hemorrhage, including bleeding arising from major trauma and post-operative interventions. Significant...

Benefits of Tranexamic Acid Not Debatable but Leave Tourniquet Use to Surgeon's Discretion: Commentary on an article by ZeYu Huang, MD, PhD, et al.: "Intravenous and Topical Tranexamic Acid Alone Are Superior to Tourniquet Use for Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty. A Prospective, Randomized Controlled Trial".

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Antifibrinolytic hemostatic used in severe hemorrhage.

A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE distinguished from other genera in the family by the presence of specific derivatives of TGD-2 polar lipids. Haloarcula are found in neutral saline environments such as salt lakes, marine salterns, and saline soils.

A family of gram-negative, moderately halophilic bacteria in the order Oceanospirillales. Members of the family have been isolated from temperate and Antarctic saline lakes, solar salt facilities, saline soils, and marine environments.

Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)

Misunderstanding among individuals, frequently research subjects, of scientific methods such as randomization and placebo controls.

More From BioPortfolio on "Intravenous Tranexamic Acid and Intraoperative Visualization During Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery"

Advertisement
Quick Search
Advertisement
Advertisement

 

Searches Linking to this Trial