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- Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that affects white blood cells and has a poor long-term survival rate. Two other types of cancer, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering myeloma (SMM), may eventually progress and develop into multiple myeloma. Researchers are interested in collecting samples from individuals who have been diagnosed with MGUS and SMM to study possible risk factors for developing multiple myeloma.
- To study risk factors that may cause MGUS and SMM to progress to multiple myeloma.
- Individuals at least 18 years of age who have been diagnosed with either MGUS or SMM but do not have multiple myeloma.
- Participants will be examined by study researchers at the initial visit, at 6 months following enrollment, and every 12 months for a maximum of 5 years.
- The following tests may be performed: (1) blood and urine tests, (2) bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, (3) imaging studies, and (4) a skeletal survey (a series of skeletal X-rays of the skull, spine, pelvis, ribs, shoulders, upper arm, and thigh bones).
- Treatment will not be provided as part of this protocol. - Participants will remain on the study for 5 years, or until their MGUS or SMM progresses to multiple myeloma requiring treatment.
- Multiple Myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma cell neoplasm with a median survival of 3-4 years.
- Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering myeloma (SMM) are premalignant plasma cell proliferative disorders characterized by elevated monoclonal protein and bone marrow plasma cells. MGUS affects 3.2% of Caucasians over the age of 50 and has a 1% annual risk of progression to MM. approximately 3000 cases of SMM are diagnosed annually with a 10% annual risk of progression to MM.
- Current risk stratification schemes rely on serum protein markers and phenotyping by flow cytometry. While they can differentiate high and low risk patients, they cannot predict outcome for individual patients, are not integrated with one another, and have limited direct correlation to biology.
- Paired samples linked to clinical information can advance research into improved risk stratification, the pathogenesis of MGUS, SMM, and MM, and the potential for an early treatment window for these incurable diseases.
- To characterize the natural history and prognosis of MGUS and SMM
- To integrate protein markers (including immunoglobulin free light-chains) and immunophenotyping by flow cytometry with molecular profiles (including gene expression profiles) and clinical outcomes
- To apply expertise and diagnostic technology to provide improved evaluation, monitoring, and risk-stratification for patients on this protocol
- To provide paired samples of blood and tissue linked to clinical and molecular information for pilot translational studies
- A confirmed diagnosis of MGUS or SMM (based on IMWG diagnostic criteria)
- Age greater than or equal to 18 years
- ECOG performance status in the range of 0-2
- Patients who have a diagnosis of MM are not eligible for this study.
- This is a prospective cohort study of patients with either MGUS or SMM.
- Following initial evaluation and confirmation of diagnosis, patients will be followed as clinically indicated, usually at 12 month intervals.
- The primary endpoint is progression to MM requiring treatment.
- The minimum length of follow up will be 5 years.
- Patients may donate cellular products or tissues as appropriate for research purposes.
246 patients with MGUS and 100 patients with SMM will be enrolled on this protocol.
Time Perspective: Prospective
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:14:13-0400
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An asymptomatic and slow-growing PLASMA CELL dyscrasia characterized by presence of MYELOMA PROTEINS and clonal bone marrow plasma cells without end-organ damage (e.g., renal impairment). It is distinguished from MONOCLONAL GAMMOPATHY OF UNDETERMINED SIGNIFICANCE by a much higher risk of progression to symptomatic MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
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