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Along with cognitive and psychobehavioural disorders, gait disorders represent a major problem in the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). PD can be considered to be a hyperglutamatergic disease because dopaminergic depletion induces hyperactivity of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the internal pallidum (GPi), with glutamatergic hyperactivity of the STN's efferent pathway, i.e., the subthalamopallidal, subthalamonigral and subthalamo-entopeduncular pathways (projecting to the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN)). Excess glutamate in the PPN has also been observed in the 6-OHDA rat model of PD. Reduction of this glutamatergic hyperactivity within the PPN via the systemic or intra-peduncular administration of glutamate antagonists improves akinesia in drug-induced murine and primate models of PD, via the NMDA and AMPA receptors. High doses of memantine (10 mg/kg) improve locomotion in reserpine- and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine-treated rats. In humans, the PPN may play a key role in gait, posture control, axial rigidity and attention. It is also involved in the gating of sensory information involved in the startle reflex, which can be studied via prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the blink reflex. At present, two uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists are approved for use in humans: amantadine and memantine. Reviews of the recent literature on these drugs have identified no published studies specifically on severe gait and attention disorders in PD. Memantine is a partial blocker of open NMDA channels. The value of memantine relates to the fact that it decreases excessive glutamatergic transmission by lowering the synaptic noise due to excessive activation of NMDA receptors. In this double-blind study, the investigators shall seek to demonstrate the presence or absence of an effect of memantine on gait and attention disorders. In order to study the interaction between glutamatergic hyperactivity and the dopaminergic system, the investigators shall study the phenomena both in the absence of L-dopa and following acute administration of the latter. Twenty eight volunteer, non-demented, late-stage PD patients displaying severe gait disorders will receive memantine (20 mg/day) or placebo for 3 months. The investigators expect to see a reduction in gait and attention disorders, together with an improvement in the blink reflex with PPI under memantine. This pilot study could subsequently be turned into a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre study.
Overall study duration: 2 years. Planned inclusion period: 12 months. Study duration for individual patients: 4 months and 2 weeks(2 weeks between screening and randomization, 3 months of double-blind treatment and then a 4-week wash-out period).
Primary objective (V1 and V4):
To assess efficacy of memantine treatment on severe gait disorders assessed on stride lenght by gait analysis with an optoelectronic system (VICON®) in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease under subthalamic stimulation
Additional Efficacy Endpoints (V1 and V4):
- Kinematic and Kinetic parameters (stride length, stride time, velocity, cadence and variability of these parameters) of the gait initiation and the stabilised gait using the optoelectronic system (VICON®)
- Gait and motor symptoms: the "Freezing Of Gait trajectory", RGSE scale, the UPDRS scores (partI, II, III, IV), the dyskinesia rating scale, Achiron scales
- auto-questionnaires of Giladi, ABC scale and PDQ 39
- Attention: simple and complex reactions times
- Axial rigidity : measured by passive flexion on isokinetic dynamometer (Cybex 6000),and indirectly by amplitude of active flexion and mesures of the spine and pelvis during gait on Vicon®
- Blink reflex with Prepulse Inhibition : percentage of inhibition
- Drowsiness: Epworth and Parkinson's disease Sleep Scales
- Apathy Lille Apathy Rating Scale
- Depression : MADRS,
Safety and Tolerability Endpoints (V1, V2, V3 and V4):
- Safety : Recording of all serious and non serious adverse events reported by the patients, electrocardiogram, blood pressure and biological analyzes (blood counts, ionogramme, urea, creatinemia, transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubinemia, gamma GT, magnesium)
- Tolerability Number of subjects (%) who discontinue the study Number of subjects (%) who discontinue the study due to AEs Safety Measures AE incidence Safety laboratory values Vital signs Blood pressure monitoring ECG Physical and neurological examination
Monocentric study: 12-week double blind, placebo-controlled phase. After being found eligible to participate in the study, subjects will be allocated in a 1:1 ratio into one of the following two treatment groups based on a randomization scheme with blocks stratified:
1. st week: 5 mg per day in the morning
2. nd week: 10 mg per day in the morning
3. rd week: 15 mg per day in the morning
4. th week: 20 mg per day in the morning
one placebo during 3 months same as memantine
Schedule: 5 visits Four consultations: screening (V0), randomisation (V1, 15 days after V0), (V2) visit after 1 months, (V3) visit after 2 months and termination (V4, 3 months after randomisation)
Patients 28 subjects with Parkinson's disease duration of more than 5 years, without dementia (Mattis Dementia Rating Scale ≥ 130, MMSE ≥ 27 and DSM IV), without major depression (MADRS < 18) who have severe gait disorders including freezing of gait (defined by an answer 2 or 3 at the 3rd question of the autoquestionnaire of Giladi: Do your gait disorders impede your daily living activities and your independence: answer: yes, moderately or severely. But the patient requires no physical assistance to walk) despite an optimal dopaminergic treatment and optimal and stable subthalamic stimulation parameters. No additional therapy will be permitted during the study.
Centre : LILLE :
Neurological department, CHU de Lille, EA 2683, IFR 114 : Pr L. Defebvre, Pr K. Dujardin, Dr D. Devos, Pr Destee, Mme Delliaux. Dr A Kreisler, Dr C Simonin, Dr C. Moreau, Dr A. Delval Department of Pharmacology, Faculté de Médecine, Lille II, EA 1046, IFR 114 : R. Bordet.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Placebo Control, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor), Primary Purpose: Treatment
University Hospital, Lille
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:14:27-0400
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