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Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) comprise a family of linoleic acid (18:2n-6; LA) isomers that are formed by biohydrogenation and oxidation processes in nature. The main form of CLA, cis-9, trans-11-18:2, can be produced directly by bacterial hydrogenation in the rumen or by delta-9 desaturation of the co-product vaccenic acid (trans-11-18:1) in most mammalian tissues including man. The second most abundant isomer of CLA is the trans-10, cis-12-18:2 form. Observations clearly emphasize that differences exist between mammalian species in their response to CLAs with mice being the most sensitive. The majority of studies on body compositional effects (i.e. fat loss, lean gain), on cancer and cardiovascular disease attenuation, on insulin sensitivity and diabetes and on immune function have been conducted with a variety of animal models. Recent studies indicate that some but not all of the effects observed in animals also pertain to human volunteers. Reports of detrimental effects of CLA intake appear to be largely in mice and due mainly to the trans-10, cis-12 isomer. Suggestions of possible deleterious effects in man due to an increase in oxidative lipid products (isoprostanes) with trans-10, cis-12 CLA ingestion require substantiation. Unresponsiveness to antioxidants of these non-enzymatic oxidation products casts some doubt on their physiological relevance. We hypothesized that supplementation with CLA + an antioxidant (vitamin E) in patients with diabetes mellitus may have beneficial effects on glycemic control and insulin sensitivity.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Placebo Control, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor), Primary Purpose: Supportive Care
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Tonalin SG1000T FFA
Iran, Islamic Republic of
Shaheed Beheshti Medical University
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:14:45-0400
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A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
A type of diabetes mellitus that is characterized by severe INSULIN RESISTANCE and LIPODYSTROPHY. The latter may be generalized, partial, acquired, or congenital (LIPODYSTROPHY, CONGENITAL GENERALIZED).
A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by excessive LIPOLYSIS, oxidation of FATTY ACIDS, production of KETONE BODIES, a sweet smell to the breath (KETOSIS;) DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.
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