Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
The purpose of this research study is to learn about whether treating the esophagus with amiloride reduces either the frequency or the time to onset of acid-induced heartburn in patients with nonerosive reflux disease. In particular, we are looking at people who have either had complete relief while using a Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) or who have only had some relief of symptoms while on a PPI.
It is now well established that patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease - both erosive and non-erosive forms - have on esophageal biopsy a lesion in esophageal stratified squamous epithelium known as 'dilated intercellular spaces (DIS). This lesion has importance because it reflects an increase in paracellular permeability due to acid damage to the tight junctions . Moreover, the increase in paracellular permeability in non-eroded esophageal epithelium provides a plausible explanation for why heartburn occurs during episodes of acid reflux (or esophageal acid perfusion) in those with nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) but not in healthy subjects, and that is because luminal acid is now able to diffuse between cells in quantities sufficient to acidify the intercellular space . Further, the lowering of intercellular pH is the likely trigger for heartburn by its ability to stimulate pain-sensing neurons (nociceptors) within the esophageal mucosa; with the signal from these neurons being transmitted to the CNS for heartburn perception. Clinical and experimental evidence support these concepts in that antacid ingestion relieves and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) prevent heartburn in most patients and when PPIs control heartburn, they also lead to resolution of DIS in squamous epithelium . Moreover, it is increasingly likely that many NERD patients classified as PPI-partial responders develop heartburn through the same mechanism as PPI-complete responders with NERD. This is because PPIs only raise gastric pH to ~pH 5, and even such 'weakly-acidic' refluxates have been shown to be associated with heartburn . The reason for this is that in the presence of a broken epithelial barrier, weakly acidic refluxates are still able to acidify the intercellular space to levels sufficient to activate the nociceptors - the latter the case since the nociceptors can be activated even at pHs as modestly acidic as pH 6.0-pH 7.0 (see below).
The esophageal mucosa has two nociceptors that are candidates to mediate heartburn in NERD. These are: a) a capsaicin-sensitive, transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor (TRPV)-1, and b) an amiloride-inhibitable, acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC), subtype 2. Both nociceptor types innervate the esophageal mucosa and are activated by small declines in environmental (intercellular) pH [5,6]. Recently, a role for TRPV-1 was sought in the causation of heartburn during esophageal acid perfusion . This was done by perfusing the esophagus with capsaicin in quantities presumed sufficient to desensitize TRPV-1 and then perfusing with acid to see if it blocked heartburn. The results, however, were negative in that acid still elicited heartburn. From this, one can conclude that heartburn is either not mediated by TRPV-1 or that capsaicin failed to adequately desensitize TRPV-1. We propose to test the hypothesis that capsaicin's failure to block heartburn in these subjects was because the actual nociceptors mediating heartburn are mucosal ASICs rather than TRPV-1. The hypothesis will be tested in a double-blind crossover study designed to determine if esophagal perfusion with the ASIC-inhibitor, amiloride, can block heartburn elicited by acid-perfusion in PPI-complete responders and PPI-partial responders with NERD . The expectation is that, when compared to placebo, amiloride, which readily diffuses across intact esophageal epithelium, will reduce the frequency and both prolong the onset and reduce the severity of heartburn elicitable by esophageal acid perfusion. Such an outcome would provide support for mucosal ASICs, rather than TRPV-1, as mediator of heartburn in NERD, and raise interest in ASICs as a potential therapeutic target for that subset with NERD that are PPI-partial responders.
Allocation: Randomized, Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor), Primary Purpose: Treatment
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
The Clinical and Translational Research Center
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:14:53-0400
The purpose of this research study is to compare the safety and effectiveness (how well the medicine works) of esomeprazole (study drug) to placebo (a capsule that does not contain any med...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral TAK-438 10 mg once-daily in the treatment of non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease
Cardiorespiratory and gastroesophageal reflux events often coexist in infants in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) thus leading to drugs over-prescription and delayed discharge. Through...
The primary objective of this study is to determine the accuracy of the Reflux Disease Questionnaire (RDQ) as a diagnostic test for gastroesophageal reflux disease. Symptom evaluation by t...
The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of pantoprazole on fast symptom reduction in patients with NERD (non-erosive reflux disease) or eGERD (erosive gastroesophageal reflux diseas...
Nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux has been associated with poor sleep quality. Normal physiologic adaptations of the aerodigestive system to sleep prolong and intensify nocturnal reflux events. This o...
In most cases gastroesophageal reflux disease proceeds without macroscopic erosions in the esophagus. We aimed to clarify if abnormalities detectable in magnifying endoscopy may offer additional diagn...
To provide new concepts regarding the early pathologic changes of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) that are associated with damage to the lower esophageal sphincter (LES).
Proton pump inhibitors are the most effective medical therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease, but their onset of action may be slow.
Esomeprazole is commonly administered with food; however, clinical data to support this practice are lacking. We aimed to determine the effect of postprandial ingestion of esomeprazole on reflux sympt...
Retrograde bile flow. Reflux of bile can be from the duodenum to the stomach (DUODENOGASTRIC REFLUX); to the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX); or to the PANCREAS.
Back flow of gastric contents to the LARYNGOPHARYNX where it comes in contact with tissues of the upper aerodigestive tract. Laryngopharyngeal reflux is an extraesophageal manifestation of GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.
The R-isomer of lansoprazole that is used to treat severe GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE.
Chronic ESOPHAGITIS characterized by esophageal mucosal EOSINOPHILIA. It is diagnosed when an increase in EOSINOPHILS are present over the entire esophagus. The reflux symptoms fail to respond to PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS treatment, unlike in GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE. The symptoms are associated with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to food or inhalant allergens.
A substituted benzamide used for its prokinetic properties. It is used in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia, and other disorders associated with impaired gastrointestinal motility. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
Barrett’s esophagus is a condition in which the tissue lining the esophagus—the muscular tube that carries food and liquids from the mouth to the stomach—is replaced by tissue that is similar to the intestinal lining. This process is ca...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...