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- National Cancer Institute Protocol 04-C-N191, also known as the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial, was a double-blind controlled study of the effectiveness of an experimental human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in preventing cervical cancer in young women in Costa Rica. Costa Rica was part of the first large study to show the association between HPV and cervical cancer, and the study contributed greatly to the understanding of this association. The women who have participated in the vaccine trial in Costa Rica are reaching the end of the follow-up period offered in the vaccine trial protocol, and as a result they are being offered the chance to have complementary vaccinations against HPV, hepatitis A, and hepatitis B.
- To offer participants in the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial the vaccine that they did not receive during the masked portion of the trial (HPV vaccine or hepatitis A vaccine) and hepatitis B vaccination.
- To collect information about exposure to known and suspected risk factors for HPV infection and cervical cancer from women who are receiving vaccination against HPV at crossover.
- Women who participated in National Cancer Institute Protocol 04-C-N191.
- All participants will be offered vaccination against hepatitis B.
- Women who received the hepatitis A vaccine during the trial will be offered vaccination against HPV.
- Women who received the HPV vaccine during the trial will be offered vaccination against hepatitis A.
- Appropriate vaccinations (including a combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine) will be available to reduce the number of injections that participants will be asked to receive.
- All vaccines will be given according to the manufacturer's specifications for appropriate length of time between vaccine doses.
Since the mid 1980's, the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics of the National Cancer Institute in collaboration with investigators in Costa Rica has conducted studies regarding cervical cancer and HPV infection. The first effort was a case control study where Costa Rica was one of the Latin American countries included, and it was the first large epidemiological study to show the association between HPV and cervical cancer. The second study, consisting of a 10,049 women population-based cohort, the Guanacaste cohort, was carried out from 1993 until 2004, and has greatly contributed to the understanding of the natural history of HPV infection and its relationship with precancerous cervical lesions.
The profound knowledge of the natural history of HPV infection and cervical neoplasia in Guanacaste, Costa Rica together with the promising results of the different HPV vaccine trials led the National Cancer Institute, in collaboration with investigators in Costa Rica, to launch a community-based randomized phase III clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of a virus-like particle HPV vaccine (henceforth referred to as the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (CVT)).
The main objectives of the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial were to evaluate the efficacy of the candidate vaccine to prevent persisting HPV-16/18 infections and related histopathologically confirmed CIN2+ lesions among the according to protocol subcohort and the overall population enrolled in the study. In contrast, the objectives of this protocol are aimed at offering beneficial complementary vaccination to women enrolled in the trial with an additional objective to collect biological specimens from women receiving the HPV-16/18 vaccine to complement the information obtained during the masked phase of the trial. As an additional objective, we propose to collect information regarding exposure to known and suspected risk factors for HPV infection and cervical cancer and biological specimens during this crossover phase that will complement those collected during the masked phase of the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial.
Collection of risk factor information and biological specimens during this crossover phase will be restricted to women receiving vaccination against HPV 16/18 at crossover. These samples will permit a more complete and comprehensive evaluation of the vaccine immunogenicity. Also, those specimens will allow for ancillary analyses and studies (e.g., natural history of HPV infection acquisition/clearance) and to assist ongoing efforts to evaluate the longer-term impact of HPV-16/18 vaccination.
Time Perspective: Prospective
Proyecto Epidemiologico Guanaste (PEG)
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:15:12-0400
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Morphological abnormalities of the cervical EPITHELIUM, usually revealed in PAP SMEAR, which do not meet the criteria for squamous CERVICAL INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA or SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMAS of the CERVIX . It may be a sign of infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV).or sign of a benign (not cancer) growth, such as a cyst or polyp or, in menopausal women, of low hormone levels. More testing, such as HPV test, may be needed.
A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
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