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Pharmacokinetics of Mefloquine-Artesunate in Pregnant Women With Uncomplicated Plasmodium Falciparum Infection

2014-08-27 03:15:23 | BioPortfolio

Summary

Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are now the treatment of choice for malaria in non-pregnant individuals living in areas with established chloroquine resistance; they have been shown to be both safe and highly efficacious. There is rapidly increasing experience with artemisinin derivatives in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy, with over 1,000 well documented cases with no reported serious adverse effects to mother or fetus (WHO Malaria Treatment Guidelines, 2006). Many countries in Latin America have abandoned the previous 1st line regimen of Quinine-Clindamycin for treatment of malaria in pregnancy, a complex and poorly tolerated regimen with low adherence, in favor of ACTs, despite limited safety and pharmacokinetic data on the use of these compounds in pregnant women. Lack of pharmacokinetic data may lead to underdosing of pregnant women, with subsequent reduced efficacy and increased potential for development of resistance.

One ACT regimen, Artesunate-Mefloquine, has been developed as a fixed-dose combination (Farmanguinhos Artesunato + Mefloquina), as part of an international collaborative research effort led by Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative (DNDi), and manufactured by Farmanguinhos, laboratory of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Initial clinical trials suggest that it is very well tolerated and efficacious in both pregnant and non-pregnant individuals. The convenient dosing afforded by a fixed drug combination make this a very promising candidate for treatment of pregnant women with malaria. Preliminary pharmacokinetic data from mefloquine monotherapy and prophylaxis suggest that the peak concentration of mefloquine is lowered in pregnant women. Prior to wide-spread adoption of the Artesunate-Mefloquine combination, further studies on safety, efficacy, and dose optimization are imperative. We propose to compare the pharmacokinetics of the fixed combination of mefloquine-artesunate (MA) for treatment of P.falciparum in 28 pregnant women in the second and third trimesters to the pharmacokinetics of this regimen in 28 matched non-pregnant P.falciparum infected women. This will allow us to determine whether the standard adult dose is sufficient for pregnant women.

Study Design

Allocation: Non-Randomized, Control: Active Control, Endpoint Classification: Pharmacokinetics/Dynamics Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment

Conditions

Malaria

Intervention

Mefloquine Artesunate

Location

Hospital Maternidad Cruzeiro do Sul
Cruzeiro do Sul
Acre
Brazil

Status

Not yet recruiting

Source

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Results (where available)

View Results

Links

Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:15:23-0400

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.

Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.

A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.

Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.

A protozoan parasite that occurs naturally in the macaque. It is similar to PLASMODIUM VIVAX and produces a type of malaria similar to vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species has been found to give rise to both natural and experimental human infections.

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