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Dose Response Effects of Marine Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Inflammation

2014-08-27 03:15:31 | BioPortfolio

Summary

The purpose of this study is to determine the lowest effective dose of EPA + DHA (300, 600, 900 and 1,800 mg/day delivered as fish oil supplements) that significantly attenuates the inflammatory response to in vivo and ex vivo endotoxin challenge as measured by the production over time of several inflammatory markers.

Description

Inflammation is an important biological process initiated by the immune system in response to injury, irritation or infection. Prolonged or chronic inflammation is involved in the etiology of several diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease. The evidence base clearly demonstrates benefits of diet in ameliorating inflammation and reducing the burden of chronic disease. With respect to marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids and various markers of inflammation related to cardiovascular disease (CVD), both population studies and randomized controlled supplementation trials have yielded mixed results.

Some studies have demonstrated a dose-response relationship between dietary eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA + DHA) and increased membrane (phospholipid) EPA and DHA. Red blood cell (RBC) EPA + DHA content has been proposed as a potential, modifiable marker for coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. It is well established that these fatty acids are precursors of series-3 prostanoids, thromboxanes, 5-series leukotrienes, and novel lipid mediators such as resolvins and protectins that have anti-inflammatory effects. We hypothesize that nutritionally-relevant intakes of omega-3 fatty acids are able to blunt the usual response to an inflammatory stimulus. We propose to test this hypothesis using both in vivo (i.v. endotoxin challenge) and ex vivo (endotoxin-stimulated monocytes) models in a 6-month, dose-response study with marine-derived omega-3 fatty acid supplements in healthy volunteers.

Study Design

Allocation: Randomized, Control: Placebo Control, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver), Primary Purpose: Treatment

Conditions

Cardiovascular Disease

Intervention

Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid (EPA + DHA)

Location

Penn State University
University Park
Pennsylvania
United States
16802

Status

Not yet recruiting

Source

Penn State University

Results (where available)

View Results

Links

Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:15:31-0400

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.

Trihydroxy derivatives of eicosanoic acids. They are primarily derived from arachidonic acid, however eicosapentaenoic acid derivatives also exist. Many of them are naturally occurring mediators of immune regulation.

A 20-carbon branched chain fatty acid. In phytanic acid storage disease (REFSUM DISEASE) this lipid may comprise as much as 30% of the total fatty acids of the plasma. This is due to a phytanic acid alpha-hydroxylase deficiency.

Prostaglandin-like compounds produced by free radical-induced peroxidation of DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACIDS, which are highly enriched in the brain. Formation is analogous to ISOPROSTANES formation from ARACHIDONIC ACID.

One of several acid phosphatases in humans, other mammals, plants, and a few prokaryotes. The protein fold of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) resembles that of the catalytic domain of plant purple acid phosphatase and other serine/threonine-protein phosphatases that also contain a metallophosphoesterase domain. One gene produces the various forms which include purple acid phosphatases from spleen and other tissues. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase is a biomarker for pathological states in which it is over-expressed. Such conditions include GAUCHER DISEASE; HODGKIN DISEASE; BONE RESORPTION; and NEOPLASM METASTASIS.

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