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An Efficacy Trial of Iron, Zinc and Vitamin A Fortified Rice in Children in Satun, Thailand

2014-08-27 03:16:13 | BioPortfolio

Summary

Iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies are particularly common among children and young women in the developing countries of South and Southeast Asia resulting in important adverse health effects. Simultaneous fortification of rice with iron, zinc and vitamin A could be a novel and sustainable approach to control these deficiencies.

Recently conducted extrusion trials have demonstrated that extruded rice grains containing iron, zinc and vitamin A show acceptable stability during production and storage and good sensory properties. The grains were produced using a twin-screw extruder equipped with a special cutter and a rice shaping die. The Fe, Zn and vitamin A content of the extruded product is 10 mg, 9 mg and 1050 μg per g of rice, respectively.

In this study the investigators plan to test the efficacy of the extruded triple fortified rice in Satun, Thailand, an area where rice is the staple food. Preliminary data from this area show that zinc and vitamin A intakes are low. Biochemical indicators have confirmed zinc deficiency and suboptimal vitamin A status in 1/3 of school aged children. The efficacy of the fortified rice will be evaluated in a 9 months, controlled, double-blind intervention trial in 7-12 y-old children. Children will be selected from primary schools in Satun Province based on low serum zinc values as the primary goal is to investigate Zn efficacy. As secondary outcome the effect on iron and vitamin A status will be investigated. The children will be randomized into two groups: a control group will receive a daily non-fortified rice lunch meal at school, while the second group will receive a daily rice meal containing the triple fortified rice. The rice meals will be given 5 days a week. At baseline, weight and height will be measured and determination of hemoglobin, serum ferritin, zinc protoporphyrin, serum zinc, serum retinol and C-reactive protein will be done. At mid-point and at 9 months, the baseline measurements will be repeated to judge the efficacy of the triple fortified rice.

Study Design

Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Investigator), Primary Purpose: Treatment

Conditions

Vitamin A Deficiency

Intervention

fortified extruded rice

Location

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich
Zurich
Nakhon Pathom
Switzerland
8092

Status

Active, not recruiting

Source

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

Results (where available)

View Results

Links

Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:16:13-0400

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the fortified food. The supplementation of cereals with iron and vitamins is an example of fortified food. Fortified food includes also enriched food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those essential nutrients removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)

A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)

A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)

A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)

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