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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been associated with HIV infection. However, it is uncertain whether increased CVD rates are associated with HIV-related factors (e.g., HIV-infection or highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may worsen dyslipidemia) or reflect differences in the prevalence of underlying risk factors for CVD. Furthermore, the association between initiation and duration of HAART exposure and CVD risk, including which specific drugs within the HAART classes may contribute to the increased risk, is unknown. The primary objectives of the study are therefore:
1. To estimate the absolute and relative incidence rate (IR) of CVD claims-based diagnoses among a cohort of adult patients from a large managed care population with a claims diagnosis of HIV, AIDS, or AIDS-related complex (ARC) during periods of exposure to:
- Any HAART compared to no HAART exposure
- HAART class [i.e., NRTIs, NNRTIs, PIs, and Other (i.e., fusion inhibitors)] compared to no HAART class exposure
- Specific NRTI medications compared to no specific NRTI exposure
The scientific approach is to conduct a retrospective cohort study of patients with a claims diagnosis of HIV, AIDS, or ARC (simply referred to as HIV infection) among commercially insured people in the U.S. to estimate the IR of acute MI (AMI), AMI including coronary revascularization (CR) procedures, and CVD, comparing exposure to HAART treatments. We will identify a primary cohort of patients with an initial claims diagnosis of HIV infection occurring after at least 6 months of continuous enrollment in the Ingenix National Health Informatics (NHI) or Ingenix Impact National Managed Care (Impact) Databases between 01 January 1998 and 31 December 2007. For each eligible primary cohort member, we will identify all HAART dispensings during the baseline and follow-up periods and categorize person-time of exposure by any HAART, HAART class, and specific NRTI medications. We will also specifically evaluate the risk associated with fosamprenavir and amprenavir use. Study outcome events, including AMI, AMI including CR procedures, and CVD, will be identified from the medical claims data for all patients during the follow-up period.
For the primary analysis, we will estimate the absolute IR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of each study outcome event during periods of recent, past, non-use, and cumulative duration (non-use, < 1 year, 1 - 2 years, and > 2 years) of each HAART exposure classification. We will also estimate the rate difference (RD) and 95% CI of each study outcome event during periods of recent, past, and cumulative duration (< 1 year, 1 - 2 years, and > 2 years) of each HAART exposure classification relative to non-use. We will use Poisson regression models to estimate the multivariable adjusted rate ratio (RR) and 95% CIs of each study outcome event during periods of recent, past, and cumulative duration (non-use, < 1 year, 1 - 2 years, and > 2 years) of HAART use relative to non-use for each HAART exposure classification, adjusting for confounding variables derived from the claims history of each person during their 6-month baseline period to account for channeling bias and during the follow-up period to account for changing risk factors for CVD. To further account for confounding of indication by abacavir use, analyses will be stratified by calendar year 2004, during which time there was a significant change in the primary indication for abacavir use in HIV. Analyses will be repeated as a secondary analysis on the subgroup of patients in the NHI Database with any outpatient laboratory test result; these analyses will account for values of cholesterol, cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) count, and viral load [HIV-1 ribonucleic acid (RNA)] laboratory tests.
Among the primary cohort, we will identify a subcohort of patients with an initial claims diagnosis of HIV infection occurring after at least 6 months of continuous enrollment and without HAART medication in the 6-month baseline period prior to the cohort entry date. We will repeat the primary and secondary analyses among this naïve subcohort of HAART initiators.
Observational Model: Cohort, Time Perspective: Retrospective
Acute Myocardial Infarction
Active, not recruiting
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-07-24T14:10:13-0400
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A myocardial infarction that does not produce elevations in the ST segments of the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM. ST segment elevation of the ECG is often used in determining the treatment protocol (see also ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction).
A clinical syndrome defined by MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA symptoms; persistent elevation in the ST segments of the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM; and release of BIOMARKERS of myocardial NECROSIS (e.g., elevated TROPONIN levels). ST segment elevation in the ECG is often used in determining the treatment protocol (see also NON-ST ELEVATION MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION in which the anterior wall of the heart is involved. Anterior wall myocardial infarction is often caused by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. It can be categorized as anteroseptal or anterolateral wall myocardial infarction.
An episode of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA that generally lasts longer than a transient anginal episode but that does not usually result in MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
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