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The impact on cardiovascular events achieved by statin therapy seems to be mostly attributable to the cholesterol-lowering effect with a highly debated contribution of the lipid-independent pleiotropic effects. However, a short-term benefit has been documented for patients treated with statins in acute coronary syndromes and other clinical settings. These observations strengthened the hypothesis of additional, so-called pleiotropic actions of statins.
The investigators therefore sought to investigate how different lipid-lowering strategies (non-statin therapy, low-dose statin and high-dose statin) affects cellular composition of carotid plaque over a short-term period of three months. Specifically the investigators tried and dissect the LDL-C lowering impact on plaque cellular composition as compared to the lipid-independent contribution on plaque macrophage and smooth muscle cells.
Patients (with Total Cholesterol (TC) ranging between 5.83-7.64 mmol/l), never treated with lipid lowering drugs, with symptomatic carotid stenosis >70% (NASCET criteria), and therefore eligible for carotid endarterectomy, were recruited. All patients were enrolled within 30 days from the clinical event, and randomized to one of three treatment groups. Each group, composed of 20 patients, received atorvastatin 10 mg/day (AT-10 group), or atorvastatin 80 mg/day (AT-80 group), or cholestyramine (Questran, Bristol Myer Squibb) 8 g/day plus sitosterol (Unilever) 2.5 g/day (C-S group) for three months prior to the vascular procedure. A placebo group was not included for ethical reasons due to the high cardiovascular risk profile in this population.
Allocation: Randomized, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Single Blind (Subject), Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Symptomatic Carotid Stenosis
Atorvastatin - Cholestyramine - Sitosterol
University of Chieti Medical School
University of Padua
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:16:32-0400
The aim of this study is to determine whether optimal medical treatment can postpone carotid endarterectomy.
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Increased platelet count and reticulated platelets in recently symptomatic versus asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis and in cerebral microembolic signal-negative patient subgroups: results from the HaEmostasis In carotid STenosis (HEIST) study.
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Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.
Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp822-3)
Transient complete or partial monocular blindness due to retinal ischemia. This may be caused by emboli from the CAROTID ARTERY (usually in association with CAROTID STENOSIS) and other locations that enter the central RETINAL ARTERY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p245)
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) Blood Cardiovascular Dialysis Hypertension Stent Stroke Vascular Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes all the diseases of the heart and circulation including coronary heart disease (angina...
Cholesterol is a waxy steroid metabolite found in the cell membranes and transported in the blood plasma. It is an important structural component of mammalian cell membranes, where it is establishes proper membrane permeability and fluidity. Cholesterol ...