Everolimus Rescue Immunosuppression in the Treatment of Chronic Allograft Dysfunction in Renal Transplant Recipients

2014-08-27 03:16:47 | BioPortfolio


Despite the remarkable improvement in short-term patient and graft survival among the recipients of kidney transplants, the progressive renal dysfunction (chronic allograft dysfunction) accompanied by chronic interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, vascular occlusive changes and glomerulosclerosis remains the chief cause of graft loss. As a result of this damage from immunologic and non-immunologic injury, the long-term survival of kidney transplants has changed little during the past decade. And, among the non-immunologic factors, calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity has been shown to be the most common factor leading to long-term graft damage and progression to graft failure. This is further supported by the previous finding that long-term use of calcineurin inhibitor-based therapy leads to deterioration in kidney function, even in recipients of non-renal organ transplants.

The growing interest in calcineurin inhibitor minimisation protocols to optimize renal transplant outcome offers a new therapeutic options in the management of patients with chronic allograft dysfunction. Recently, mammalian target-of-rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR inhibitors) including everolimus has been shown to achieve an improvement of long-term function through an early modulation of immunosuppressive regimen. In this aspect, percutaneous renal graft biopsy represents an important diagnostic tool to allow visualization of the lesions of chronic allograft dysfunction and therefore the ability to delineate the potential improvement after introduction of everolimus. Histologic and morphometric findings from a protocol-mandated biopsies obtained from renal transplant recipients who are suffering from chronic allograft dysfunction and treated with everolimus are needed to provide a clinical blueprint for the drug's efficacy, if confirmed.


The objective of the present study is to evaluate the a priori hypothesis that calcineurin inhibitor and rescue immunosuppression with everolimus-based therapy would attenuate the renal parenchymal injury associated with long-term use of calcineurin inhibitors in renal transplant recipients with declining kidney function. Another objective of this study is to elucidate the efficacy of our approach to arrest the progression of allograft dysfunction by means of protocol renal allograft biopsy.

Study Design

Allocation: Non-Randomized, Control: Active Control, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment


Chronic Allograft Dysfunction in Renal Transplantation




Prince of Wales Hospital
Hong Kong
Hong Kong




Chinese University of Hong Kong

Results (where available)

View Results


Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:16:47-0400

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

General dysfunction of an organ occurring immediately following its transplantation. The term most frequently refers to renal dysfunction following KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.

The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.

Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)

Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE. The most severe form is KIDNEY FAILURE. Renal function may deteriorate slowly (RENAL INSUFFICIENCY, CHRONIC) or precipitously (RENAL INSUFFICIENCY, ACUTE).

A form of ischemia-reperfusion injury occurring in the early period following transplantation. Significant pathophysiological changes in MITOCHONDRIA are the main cause of the dysfunction. It is most often seen in the transplanted lung, liver, or kidney and can lead to GRAFT REJECTION.

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Renal disease
Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal disease, is a progressive loss in renal function over a period of months or years. The symptoms of worsening kidney function are non-specific, and might include feeling generally unwell and experi...

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