Advertisement

Topics

Critical Periods of Exercise

2014-08-27 03:16:57 | BioPortfolio

Summary

Early childhood (~3-7 years of age) is an important window for determining body composition trajectory and may be a critical period for the development of tissue partitioning patterns that influence obesity risk. As adiposity accelerates during this critical period, deposition/ preservation of fat stores may be sustained at the 'expense' of other tissues; i.e. energy homeostasis may be inherently biased toward fat gain. The type and amount of tissue mass accrued in early childhood has implications for metabolic profile, glucose/insulin homeostasis, hormone profile and resting energy expenditure.

The interplay between fat and bone deposition represents a physiologic trait enabling the body to choose between shuttling 'energy' towards accrual of a particular tissue. Plausibly the phenotype underlying obesity and diabetes risk may be determined by the differentiation of cell type (adipocyte, osteocyte, etc.) during this early stage of growth and development. In vitro studies demonstrate transdifferentiation under the influence of specific external stimuli, which can switch phenotypes toward other cell lineages. Further, rodent models have demonstrated that exposure to stimuli (exercise) early in life may prevent excess fat mass accrual in adulthood, even when the stimulus is later removed (animals are no longer exercising). Children's early experiences (engagement in physical activity vs. sedentary behavior) may 'environmentally induce' alterations in body composition and predispose individuals to obesity throughout life.

Aim 1. To examine the associations between body composition via DXA and objectively-measured physical activity/inactivity.

1. Hypothesis 1.1: There is a positive association between physical activity and bone mass.

2. Hypothesis 1.2: There is a positive association between sedentary behavior and total fat mass.

Aim2. To examine the associations between adipose tissue distribution via MRI and objectively-measured physical activity/inactivity.

3. Hypothesis 2.1: There is an inverse association between physical activity and bone marrow adipose tissue.

4. Hypothesis 2.2: There is a positive association between sedentary behavior and bone marrow adipose tissue.

Study Design

Allocation: Non-Randomized, Control: Placebo Control, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Prevention

Conditions

Metabolism

Intervention

Exercise

Location

University of Alabama at Birmingham
Birmingham
Alabama
United States
35294

Status

Active, not recruiting

Source

University of Alabama at Birmingham

Results (where available)

View Results

Links

Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:16:57-0400

Clinical Trials [1827 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Markers of CrAT Protein Activity and Carnitine Availability

This study aims to measure skeletal muscle metabolism in vivo during exercise using the non-invasive MRS technique. Specifically, acetylcarnitine and phosphocreatine (PCr) kinetic will be ...

Substrate Metabolism During Exercise Following Ingestion of Ethanol

This study will investigate how ethanol (pure alcohol) influences carbohydrate and fat metabolism during prolonged, moderate intensity exercise. Participants will perform two bouts of cycl...

Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) Triglyceride Metabolism in Exercise

Purpose: To investigate VLDL-TG metabolism in exercise in healthy volunteers to determine the contribution of VLDL-TG in exercise and eventual gender differences

Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Adolescents

A 12 wk aerobic exercise program will reduce visceral, hepatic and intramyocellular fat accumulation and improve insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in obese sedentary Hispanic adol...

Fat and Sugar Metabolism During Exercise in Patients With Metabolic Myopathy

This study aims to characterize the pathophysiological mechanisms of 21 different metabolic myopathies. The study will focus on exercise capacity and the metabolic derangement during exerc...

PubMed Articles [5981 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

12,13-diHOME: An Exercise-Induced Lipokine that Increases Skeletal Muscle Fatty Acid Uptake.

Circulating factors released from tissues during exercise have been hypothesized to mediate some of the health benefits of regular physical activity. Lipokines are circulating lipid species that have ...

Brain derived neutrophic factor, a link of aerobic metabolism to neuroplasticity.

Currently, literature has accumulated great knowledge over the effect of exercise on the neurotrophin named brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its role in neuronal plasticity. However, there...

Nicotinamide riboside supplementation dysregulates redox and energy metabolism in rats: Implications for exercise performance.

What is the central question of this study? To investigate the potential metabolic and redox mechanisms that impaired exercise performance after a 21-day supplementation with 300 mg/kg body weight of...

Combating tumor cells through SIRT3 activation and exercise.

One of the main features of cancer is the high rate of cell proliferation and growth. To do this, cancer cells need to redirect their metabolism mainly towards anaerobic glycolysis and an increased mi...

Exercise improves glucose uptake in murine myotubes through the AMPKα2-mediated induction of Sestrins.

Exercise training increases insulin sensitivity. Over the past decades, considerable progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis for this important effect of physical exercise. However...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.

Controlled physical activity, more strenuous than at rest, which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used. The intensity of exercise is often graded, using criteria such as rate of work done, oxygen consumption, and heart rate.

Tapering-off physical activity from vigorous to light, to gradually return the body to pre-exercise condition and metabolic state.

Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).

Alternating sets of exercise that work out different muscle groups and that also alternate between aerobic and anaerobic exercises, which, when combined together, offer an overall program to improve strength, stamina, balance, or functioning.

More From BioPortfolio on "Critical Periods of Exercise"

Advertisement
Quick Search
Advertisement
Advertisement

 

Relevant Topics

Pediatrics
Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...

Women's Health
Women's Health - key topics include breast cancer, pregnancy, menopause, stroke Follow and track Women's Health News on BioPortfolio: Women's Health News RSS Women'...


Searches Linking to this Trial