Bad Genes or Genes Behaving Badly

2014-08-27 03:16:58 | BioPortfolio


A key factor in the determination of body composition over the lifecourse is fat accumulation during childhood. Periods of life associated with the greatest changes in organ development and growth, i.e. early childhood, have the most significant effect on body composition, energy balance, and metabolism. Early childhood (age 3 to 7 years) represents a critical transition for the basis of adaptability in body composition, due to the rapid growth and development that occurs. Plausibly the phenotype underlying obesity and related health risk may be determined by body composition during this critical period.

Our previous research in children has consistently indicated that HA children accumulate greater amounts of fat, particularly in the intra-abdominal compartment, even at similar a BMI, and lower bone mineral content relative to EA children. The reason for these differences in body composition over the lifecourse is not clear.

Racial/ethnic differences in risk factors for health, including 'thriftiness' in body fat accumulation are often evident before the age of 7, suggesting that the racial/ethnic differences in energy utilization and subsequent fat storage may be accounted for by genetic make-up, the environment (e.g. diet), or an interaction of the two. The physiologic or behavioral process(es) that cause(s) certain children to take a trajectory towards obesity while others accrue less fat is not known. However, the economic decision of fuel utilization is a physiologic trait enabling the body to choose between shuttling 'energy' towards accrual of a particular tissue (e.g. bone vs. fat) and this trait likely has a genetic component. This genetic component may be embedded in fat storage capacity evolved from gene by environment interactions that promote thrift, particularly conserved in some populations. Although genetic background plays a role, it not known whether there is a relationship between genetic background, known candidate genes or candidate pathways and environmental contributors (e.g. diet) that impact body composition trajectory. Of central importance to our understanding of early fat mass accumulation in health disparities are the mechanisms that lead to chronic disease progression.

It is likely that variations within candidate genes may have a differential impact on individuals based on their genetic background. It is also probable that body composition is influenced by many genes, often within the same metabolic pathways, with small individual effects. These genes may not be significantly associated individually, but when examined as a unit (in a candidate pathway or gene-gene interaction framework) the association becomes significant. Further, children's early environmental exposures (e.g. diet) may interact with both genetic background and variations in candidate genes along resulting in alterations in body composition that predispose HA to excess fat accumulation throughout the lifecourse. To that end, the following specific aims will be evaluated:

Aim 1. To examine the associations between genetic admixture and body composition in children aged 3-7 years after controlling for dietary intake.

1. Hypothesis 1.1: There is a direct association between Amerindian admixture and fat mass and in inverse association between Amerindian admixture and bone mass.

2. Hypothesis 1.2: There is a direct association between energy intake and fat accumulation and the relationship will be particularly evident in individuals with a greater proportion of Amerindian admixture.

Aim 2. To examine the associations between genetic admixture and bone marrow fat in children aged 3-7 years after controlling for dietary intake.

1. Hypothesis 2.1: There is a direct association between Amerindian admixture and bone marrow fat.

2. Hypothesis 2.2: There is a direct association between energy intake and fat accumulation in bone marrow and the relationship will be particularly evident in individuals with a greater proportion of Amerindian admixture.

Aim 3. To examine the relationship between variation in candidate genes and pathways and Amerindian admixture controlling for dietary intake.

a. Hypothesis 3.1: Amerindian admixture will be associated with variations in candidate genes and pathways known to be associated with fat accumulation.

Study Design

Observational Model: Cohort, Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional


Body Composition


United States


Active, not recruiting


University of Alabama at Birmingham

Results (where available)

View Results


Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:16:58-0400

Clinical Trials [214 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Whole Body Vibration Training on Body Composition

The purpose of the study is to determine the effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) on body composition, physical fitness, and quality of life.

Impact of Currently Recommended Postnatal Nutrition on Neonatal Body Composition

The purpose of this study is to gain information that may be useful in helping to figure out better or newer ways to provide nutrition to babies born premature.

Tanita BIA System Validation

The study is to collect the body composition data using five different methods-bioimpedance analysis (Tanita®), DXA (GE Medical), BodPod (Life Medical), deuterium dilution (heavy water), ...

Comparison Study for Bioelectrical Impedance Device to Measure Human Body Composition

The purpose of this study is to determine if the ElectroFluidGraph(tm) (EFG) impedance analyzer is comparable to a predicate device in measuring human body composition.

Effects of Casein Timing on Body Composition and Performance

This study will investigate the effects of night time versus day time casein supplementation on body composition and athletic performance. Participants will consume the protein supplements...

PubMed Articles [5023 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Early Hormonal Treatment Affects Body Composition and Body Shape in Young Transgender Adolescents.

Transgender adolescents aspiring to have the body characteristics of the affirmed sex can receive hormonal treatment. However, it is unknown how body shape and composition develop during treatment and...

Obesity, Body Composition, and Breast Cancer: An Evolving Science.

Functional Movement Patterns and Body Composition of High-Level Volleyball, Soccer and Rugby Players.

Sports practice leads athletes to develop a specific body composition, coordination patterns and basic motor skills based on the different tactical and physical needs.

New Insight about Height: Body-Composition Changes in Infancy Predict Later Linear Growth.

Summary on Dietary Modulation of Growth and Body Composition.

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.

Large regions of the GENOME that contain local similarities in BASE COMPOSITION.

The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.

A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.

Authoritative resources describing the composition, properties, manufacture, and quality control of HOMEOPATHIC REMEDIES.

More From BioPortfolio on "Bad Genes or Genes Behaving Badly"

Quick Search


Relevant Topics

Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...

Diabetes Diabetes Endocrine Obesity Oxycontin Renal Disease Thyroid Disorders Endocrinology is the study of the endocrine glands and the hormones that they secrete (Oxford Medical Dictionary). There are several groups of h...

Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...

Searches Linking to this Trial