Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
A substantial body of evidence implicates the endogenous opioid system, and the mu opioid receptor (MOR) in particular, in the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse, including nicotine. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the mu opioid receptor gene (OPRM1 Asp40) is associated with the ability to quit smoking, as well as nicotine reward and withdrawal symptoms. However, the precise mechanism through which this SNP influences nicotine dependence remains unresolved. This positron emission tomography (PET) study will examine whether this OPRM1 SNP alters MOR binding in response to nicotine in human smokers. Specifically, we will use [11 C]carfentanil PET imaging to assess the effects of intravenous (IV) nicotine versus saline (within-subject) on MOR binding potential in 24 chronic smokers genotyped prospectively and stratified by OPRM1 genotype.
The study uses a mixed factorial design with one between subject factor (OPRM1 genotype_: Asn40/Asn40 vs. Asn40/Asp40 or Asp40/Asp40) and one within-subject factor (IV nicotine vs. IV saline) to examine genotype by nicotine interactions on MOR binding potential (BP_ND ) assessed via PET imaging with [11 C]carfentanil. Twenty-four smokers (12 male, 12 female; 12 from each genotype group) will participate in two 90 minute PET sessions following overnight (14-hours) abstinence from nicotine. Genotype groups will be matched for age and sex . One week prior to the first PET session, there will be an adaptation session during which participants will receive IV saline followed 30 minutes later by IV nicotine (1 mg/70 kg) to ensure that they tolerate the procedure. In the PET sessions, participants will receive either IV nicotine (1 mg/70 kg) or saline (within-subject, double blind, counterbalanced). The primary outcomes will be BP_ND in ventral striatum and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Normally menstruating women will be scheduled for their sessions during the early follicular phase. Sessions will be separated by 1 month for all participants to reduce variability in MOR binding due to hormonal changes during females menstrual cycles. Participants will complete subjective measures of nicotine reward and craving at each session.
Observational Model: Case-Crossover, Time Perspective: Prospective
Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Nicotine Addiction, University of Pennsylvania
Not yet recruiting
University of Pennsylvania
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:16:59-0400
A placebo-controlled study to enroll male and female tobacco smokers menthol (n=35) and non-menthol (n=35) who will participate in five experimental sessions. subjects will be given an IV ...
Unfortunately, the investigators still need to assess and identify novel ways to help people quit smoking. Differences between people in terms of how fast they metabolize nicotine influenc...
This is a 2-year study involving the progressive reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes. The investigators believe that at the end of the study smokers of cigarettes with progress...
The proposed work will advance the understanding and effectiveness of tobacco dependence treatment and result in more smokers quitting successfully.
A comparison of three products for oral nicotine replacement with respect to pharmacokinetics after multiple-doses of nicotine.
Nicotine dependence during adolescence increases the risk of continuing smoking into adulthood. The magnitude of nicotine dependence among adolescents in the European Union (EU) has not been establish...
Understanding the neural mechanisms that support successful smoking cessation is vital to the development of novel treatments for nicotine dependence.
Nicotine addiction is the proximate cause of disease and death from cigarette smoking. In 1994, we proposed reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes to non-addicting levels to reduce the risk of yo...
Despite the overall decline in the prevalence of cigarette use in the United States, menthol cigarette use among smokers is rising, and evidence shows that it may lead to more detrimental effects on p...
Identify correlates of nicotine dependence [lifetime (l) and ongoing (o)] in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood. We conducted a 33-year prospective follow-up of b...
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
Chewing gum which contains NICOTINE.
SMOKING vapors produced from ELECTRONIC NICOTINE DELIVERY SYSTEMS.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
Women's Health - key topics include breast cancer, pregnancy, menopause, stroke Follow and track Women's Health News on BioPortfolio: Women's Health News RSS Women'...
Alternative Medicine Cleft Palate Complementary & Alternative Medicine Congenital Diseases Dentistry Ear Nose & Throat Food Safety Geriatrics Healthcare Hearing Medical Devices MRSA Muscular Dyst...