Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
- Relapse to drug abuse often happens in the presence of stimuli that are associated with previous drug use, also known as cues. Drug-taking behavior appears to be partly controlled by such cues. Some research suggests that cue-induced craving states are responsible for drug use and relapse, but other research suggests that cues can control drug taking without conscious craving or even awareness. Researchers are interested in using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study how individuals respond to drug-related cues and how these cues affect craving on a conscious or unconscious level.
- To determine how drug-related stimuli (cues) affect thinking, information processing, and body reactions in current drug users.
- Individuals between 18 and 50 years of age who are dependent on either tobacco or crack-cocaine, or are healthy volunteers who are not dependent on either drug.
- The study will require two sessions, a training session and a testing session, that will take place within 48 hours of each other. Between the two test sessions, participants may not consume alcohol, tobacco, or illegal drugs, and must restrict caffeine consumption.
- During the first session, participants will complete questionnaires about tobacco/cocaine use and craving, and will be trained on the tasks to be performed in the MRI scanner.
- During the second session, participants will perform concentration tasks and look at pictures, some of which will be tobacco/cocaine related. Body reactions such as heart rate, pupil dilation, and sweating will be measured during this session. Some participants will have actual MRI scanning, while others will have mock MRI scanning.
- After the MRI session, participants will complete questionnaires about craving and responses to the scan.
Relapse to drug abuse often happens in the presence of stimuli that are associated with previous drug-use, and drug-taking behavior appears to be partly controlled by such cues. While some theories postulate that such facilitation is mediated by cue-induced craving states, others hypothesize that the underlying processes are highly automatized and can happen without conscious control or even awareness. One way to approach psychological mechanisms of cue reactivity is to measure disruption of ongoing mental activity by drug-related material in dependent individuals while manipulating the degree to which cognitive evaluative processes can unfold. Craving measurement under these conditions can elucidate its relationship with automatic processing versus conscious evaluation of drug cues. Autonomic and neural correlates can be identified by concomitant psychophysiological and fMRI recording. Results from these studies will shed light on the role of spontaneous automatic reactions versus cognitive evaluation for different measures of cue reactivity. By helping to elucidate the psychological mechanisms and neurobiological basis of drug-cue reactivity in dependent individuals, this may have substantial implications for the understanding of mechanisms and treatment of drug dependence. Thus, while there are no direct benefits to subjects participating in these experiments, the results may benefit the health of society. MRI-related risks to subjects (injury from metal implants, claustrophobia, temporary deafness due to the loud banging noises) will be minimized by prescreening and providing earplugs. Drug-related cues may induce acute craving; subjects will be dismissed only after craving levels have returned to baseline.
National Institute on Drug Abuse, Biomedical Research Center (BRC)
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:17:07-0400
This study investigates whether intranasal oxytocin, given in the context of cognitive behavioral therapy for drug dependence, modulates therapeutic alliance and treatment outcome.
Cocaine dependence is a significant public health concern. The proposed research will provide important clinical information regarding the efficacy of agonists replacement therapies for ma...
Overall, this proposal seeks to improve treatment strategies for the significant public health problem of prescription opioid dependence by determining whether gabapentin, a non-narcotic p...
The purpose of this study is to see whether naltrexone is safe and useful in preventing alcohol relapse, as well as in decreasing craving for alcohol in people with a diagnosis of alcohol ...
The study is examining the impact of a Virtual Reality Cue Exposure Therapy intervention on heroin cravings compared to Relapse Prevention Drug Education.
Corrigendum to: "Does outcome measurement of treatment for substance use disorder reflect the personal concerns of patients? A scoping review of measures recommended in Europe" Drug Alcohol Dependence 179 (2017) 299-308.
To estimate obesity prevalence among drug-dependent individuals and to compare prevalence across different types of drug dependence.
Erratum to: A randomized, open label trial of methadone continuation versus forced withdrawal in a combined US prison and jail: Findings at 12 months post-release Drug and Alcohol Dependence 184 (2018) 57-63.
Substance dependence is a chronic and relapsing disorder explained by genetic and environmental risk factors. The aim of our study is to replicate previous genome-wide significant (GWS) hits identifie...
The societal impact of drug use is well known. An example is when drug-intoxicated drivers increase the burden on policing and healthcare services.
Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.
Strong physiological and emotional dependence on OPIUM.
Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon morphine.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
A pharmaceutical preparation that combines buprenorphine, an OPIOID ANALGESIC with naloxone, a NARCOTIC ANTAGONIST to reduce the potential for NARCOTIC DEPENDENCE in the treatment of pain. It may also be used for OPIATE SUBSTITUTION THERAPY.
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing as well as dispensing drugs and medicines. It is a health profession that links health sciences with chemical sciences and aims to ensure the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs. The scope of...
Clinical Approvals Clinical Trials Drug Approvals Drug Delivery Drug Discovery Generics Drugs Prescription Drugs In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which drugs are dis...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...