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The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the body's response to a human papillomavirus (HPV) (sexually transmitted disease), vaccine and booster shot. The study will also determine factors related to adolescents not following vaccination schedules. The HPV vaccine requires 3 doses (shots). Girls sometimes receive the 3 shots at the recommended time and sometimes girls receive the shots at non-recommended times. This study will evaluate if getting the shots at non-recommended times affects the level of protection provided by the vaccine. Participants will include about 1400 girls 9-17 years old receiving a third dose of HPV vaccine from their primary care clinician. The parent/legal guardian of each subject will answer a questionnaire related to the vaccine schedule. Study procedures include: medical history, questionnaires and blood draws. Participants will be involved in the study for about 6 months from time of enrollment.
The immune response to the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in the non-clinical trial settings is unknown. In addition, the immune response following administration of vaccine at substantially prolonged intervals is unknown. Early indications suggest that many girls will be receiving the vaccine at prolonged intervals and that this timing may affect immunogenicity. The lack of knowledge about the immunogenicity of prolonged intervals between vaccine doses precludes evidence based recommendations for patients who are substantially late for their second or third dose. Some clinicians currently restart the series while others give the doses at the incorrect interval (unpublished observation) without the ability to counsel their patients as to their expected level of immune response or protection. Examining the immune response prior to the third dose and at one and six months after the third dose will allow a better understanding of the immunogenicity of this vaccine and immune response to booster doses. Furthermore, determining factors related to non-adherence in the adolescent age group is important and timely. As an increasing number of vaccines are being recommended to the adolescent age group, elucidating factors involved with non-adherence to the recommended dosing schedule is now critical. This information can guide interventions that aim to increase adolescent adherence to the recommended schedules. Eligible girls 9 - 17 years old receiving the quadrivalent HPV vaccine from their primary care provider will be enrolled into this study on the day of, but prior to, receiving their third HPV vaccine dose. Blood for immunogenicity testing will be obtained up to three times throughout the study: one month and six months after the third dose for all subjects and just prior to the third dose for subjects on time for their third dose (regardless of the time interval between the first and second dose). The primary analysis will be based on comparing the geometric mean titer (GMTs) and seroresponse rate of subjects receiving the vaccine doses at substantially prolonged intervals to GMTs and seroresponse rate of subjects receiving the second and third dose on time. In addition, on Study Day 0, patient and parent related factors known to impact health care utilization will be measured using a questionnaire given to parents/legal guardians and 14 to 17 year old subjects. Analysis based on a health care utilization model will be used to determine factors associated with non-adherence to the vaccine schedule. Initially, all subjects meeting eligibility criteria will be enrolled regardless of timing of the second and third vaccine doses. When an arm accrues the assigned number of subjects completing study visit 2 (one month post dose 3), enrollment into that arm will be closed. Enrollment for the entire study will remain open until the control arm and experimental arms have each accrued 211 subjects successfully completing visit 2. When two experimental arms near final accrual goals, assessment of the potential for the third arm to reach 211 subjects will be assessed to ensure timely accrual will occur. The primary objective is to compare the GMT one month after completing the three dose vaccination series in 9 to 17 year old subjects who received the second and/or third dose at substantially prolonged intervals to subjects who receive both the second and third dose on time after adjusting for age.
Observational Model: Cohort
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:17:19-0400
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A type of human papillomavirus especially associated with malignant tumors of the genital and RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.
A vaccine containing L1 capsid proteins from four types of HPV (ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS), types 6, 11, 16 and 18 that is used to prevent infections from HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUSES of these subtypes.
A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS usually associated with GENITAL WARTS; and LARYNGEAL NEOPLASMS.
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