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The purpose of this study is to determine if restoring normal metabolic function in patients with either type I or type II diabetes can improve the impact of the consequences of diabetic complications specifically on the wide swings in blood glucoses with erratic control even under optimal conditions. Patients are treated once a week with pulsatile intravenous insulin therapy mimicking normal insulin secretion. Blood sugar diaries and laboratory tests including quarterly Hemoglobin A1c levels are monitored to measure progress and outcomes.
It is known that the glucose metabolic pathway (glycolysis) is the primary fuel generator in the brain and nerve tissue, the heart and vascular tissue, the eye, the kidney and the liver Deficient metabolic states such as seen in the glucose metabolism of diabetics can lead to sequelae. These damaging effects are exacerbated by altered cellular metabolites, specifically the increase in catabolic and decrease in anabolic factors. It has been shown over the past twenty years that normalization of metabolism in diabetic patients can be accomplished by mimicking the normal endogenous insulin pattern (i.e., in pulses). Pulsatile intravenous insulin infusion has been demonstrated to stabilize the erratic wide swings in blood glucose levels and the overall stabilization of hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic events in Type 1 diabetic patients. This study was established to evaluate the effect of providing pulsatile intravenous insulin therapy on both type 1 and type 2 diabetes to determine the effect on improving diabetic control on patients with high blood glucose levels in spite of multiple insulin injections and wide swings in blood sugar despite good control.
The RQ is determined by the use of a metabolic cart. Individuals breathe into a mask for 3-5 minutes after a rest period of 30 or more minutes. The ratio of exhaled volume of CO2 to the inhaled volume of O2 is determined as the RQ. The physiologic range is 0.7 to1.3. Individuals using fat as a primary fuel have a ratio of 0.7, protein or mixed fuels is 0.8-0.9 and carbohydrate is 0.9-1.0. Those taking excessive calories will have RQ's higher than 1.05. The RQ can be followed serially and this is done before and after each pulsatile IV insulin treatment, during the 3 successive sessions on a single treatment day. The amount of intravenous insulin and oral glucose given is determined by the RQ changes during the previous session.pulsatile IV insulin therapy encourages the glucose metabolism in diabetics to normalize in multiple organs, especially muscle, retina, liver, kidney and nerve endings. The process fundamentally requires the administration of high dose insulin pulses similar to those found in non diabetic humans by their pancreas into the surrounding portal circulation. Oral carbohydrates are given simultaneously to augment the process and prevent hypoglycemia. The process is monitored by frequent glucose levels and respiratory quotients (RQ). RQ is measured by a metabolic cart which determines the ratio VCO2/ VO2. This ratio is specific for the fuel used at any one time by the body. The glucose levels are monitored to keep glucose levels appropriate and the RQ determines the need to readjust the infusion protocol in each patient for subsequent insulin infusion sessions.Patient is evaluated post session and discharged when stable.
Frequent monitoring of RQ is necessary as these levels change rapidly, depending on the fuel being utilized by the body. Pulsatile IV insulin therapy shifts metabolism from primarily fatty acid metabolism to primarily glucose metabolism. This shift is reflected by the increase in respiratory quotient. However during rest periods the RQ may fall back to lower levels. Therefore RQ's are done at the beginning and at the end of each insulin infusion session of 1 hour in order to appropriately monitor and adjust insulin and carbohydrate loads to reach optimal activation in each session
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Active Control, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Pulsatile Intravenous Insulin Therapy (Humulin, Humulog, Novolog )
Florida Atlantic University
Florida Atlantic University
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:17:24-0400
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A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
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