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The purpose of this study is to determine the variability in glycemic index determinations for individual foods and food combinations. The study will also evaluate the changes in insulin and free fatty acid levels, plasma lipid and lipoprotein profiles, C-reactive protein-a marker of inflammation and glycosylated hemoglobin- a marker of glucose metabolism during a five-hour period after eating the food or foods. Additionally, supplementary data on variation in oral sensation, habitual food intake, food preferences and genes mediating sensory perception and dietary behaviors (supported by a grant from the Tufts Ross Aging Initiative) will be related to the outcomes on the present study.
The objective of this proposal is to investigate the intra-individual reproducibility (within the same individual, when repeatedly measured) and inter-individual variability (among individuals) of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) value determinations for individual foods and food combinations. The specific aims to accomplished this objective are to evaluate reproducibility and variability of GI value determinations in volunteers differing in biologic characteristics - body mass index (BMI), age and gender; assess the effect of macronutrient amounts and combinations, and fiber on variability of GI and GL value determinations; assess the effect of prior meal macronutrient composition ('second meal' effect) on GI value determinations; and relate these data to chronic disease risk factors monitored prior to and during the intervention period. These aims will be accomplished by assessing intra-individual reproducibility and inter-individual variability of repeated GI value determinations for white bread, commonly used as a reference food, relative to glucose, in volunteers selected to represent a range of BMI's (18.5-24.9, 25-29.9, ≥ 30) and ages (18-49.9, 50-85 y), and on the basis of gender, and relate these data to body composition and insulin sensitivity (Phase I). This work will then be extended to address issues related to variability potentially introduced by differences in macronutrient and fiber combinations and loads (Phase II), and finally by 'second meal' effects (Phase III). Prior to each set of food challenges (glucose and test food[s] in random order) volunteers will be characterized on the basis of fasting HbA1c; lipids and lipoproteins; insulin, glucose and C-reactive protein. During the 5-hour challenge (sampling at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and every 30 minutes thereafter) volunteers will be monitored for changes in blood glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total, low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non-esterified fatty acid levels. Additionally, supplementary data on variation in oral sensation, habitual food intake, food preferences and genes mediating sensory perception and dietary behaviors (supported by a grant from the Tufts Ross Aging Initiative) will be related to the outcomes on the present study. The concepts of both GI and GL are in the public domain and it has been suggested that the concepts be incorporated into U.S. federal dietary guidance (U.S. Dietary Guidelines and Dietary References Intakes [DRI]) formulated to promote health and reduce chronic disease risk. This proposal addresses some of the understudied areas for which additional information would be useful in order to determine whether GI and GL should be used to classify foods on an individual basis, as has been suggested, and when formulating dietary guidance for the general population.
Allocation: Randomized, Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Investigator, Outcomes Assessor), Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Carbohydrate, Carbohydrate Load, Carbohydrate plus Protein, Carbohydrate plus Fat, Fiber
Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:17:37-0400
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