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This study is designed to determine the relative effectiveness of buprenorphine/naloxone (Suboxone) pharmacotherapy versus naltrexone pharmacotherapy for treatment retention, relapse prevention and opioid craving reduction among opioid-dependent adolescents and young adults. We hypothesize that naltrexone treatment is as effective as buprenorphine/naloxone for these treatment outcomes.
Context: Standard treatment of opioid dependence in adolescents is detoxification and counseling, which results in relapse in 20-50% of patients. Alternative medical treatments include buprenorphine and naltrexone that have not been well investigated in adolescents and young adults. Buprenorphine has previously been shown effective in the treatment of opioid dependence in adolescents in one study in the United States as compared to detoxification. Although naltrexone treatment results in low compliance in adults, it is effective in combination with a strong social support network that exists in adolescents that live with at least 1 parent/guardian.
Objective: To compare the efficacy of buprenorphine/naloxone pharmacotherapy with naltrexone pharmacotherapy on treatment retention, relapse prevention and craving reduction among opioid-addicted adolescents and young adults.
Design: 2-arm Randomized Comparative Effectiveness Pharmacotherapy Clinical Trial.
Setting: The study will be conducted in an outpatient treatment facility Participants: The participants will be those who 1) are between 16-25 years old, 2) have clear evidence of a substance use disorder with opioid dependence, and 3) live with at least one parent.
Baseline data collection: Data collected at baseline will include (with examples), demographics (age, gender, race), substance use history (type of substances used, duration of use, routes of abuse), co-existing medical problems (seizures, hepatitis C), prior mental health problems (prior treatment, diagnoses), prior substance abuse treatment (outpatient, inpatient), socioeconomic variables (educational level, occupation, employment history), criminal history (number of arrests and convictions, total amount of time spent in jail or prison), family history (first degree relatives with substance use disorders) and scores on psychometric testing (DAST, opioid craving score).
Outcome data: Four main outcomes will be examined: Retention in treatment, self-reported opioid craving, self-reported drug use with urine toxicology confirmation. Retention in treatment (1-180 days) will be measured by the date that participant was last seen by study personnel or date when participant completes study following the date of enrollment. Opioid carving (1-10) will be measured by a 10 point visual analog scale. Self-reported drug use (days to first use and percent days abstinent) will be measured by time line follow back. Urine toxicology (yes/no) will be determined at baseline and monthly at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 months follow-up.
Data analysis: Outcome variables will be compared between the two groups using t-tests or chi-square tests as appropriate. A Kaplan-Myer survival analysis will be used to describe participant participation. Predictors of poor outcomes will be identified using a case-control design in which those with poor outcomes (the "cases") will be compared to those with successful outcomes (the "controls") using multivariate techniques (logistic regression).
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Active Control, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Sheehan Memorial Hospital
State University of New York at Buffalo
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-07-23T21:11:47-0400
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The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of a buprenorphine/naloxone sublingual tablet formulation as an office-based therapy for opiate dependence treatment.
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