Advertisement

Topics

Sensitive Periods in Early Flavor Learning

2014-08-27 03:18:41 | BioPortfolio

Summary

Flavor is the primary dimension by which young children determine food acceptance. However, children are not merely miniature adults since sensory systems mature postnatally and their responses to certain tastes differ markedly from adults. Moreover, emerging research has revealed that there are sensitive periods during infancy such that early flavor experiences serve to modify later responses to flavors and foods. The proposed study aims to investigate this important issue by using as a model system a class of infant formulas which are hydrolyzed protein based and thus have very pronounced and distinctive flavors which are unpalatable to older-aged infants and adults. This research was initiated because of anecdotal reports by pediatricians that although it is easy to introduce this type of formula to infants during the first months of life, it becomes extremely difficult to do so later in infancy. Indeed, recent studies in the investigators' laboratory provided the first experimental demonstration that infants younger than 4 months of age willingly accept substantial amounts of, and satiate while feeding, a novel, protein hydrolysate formula. In marked contrast, infants older than 4 months reject the protein hydrolysate formula and this rejection occurs within the first minute of a feed, a finding that strongly suggests the sensory qualities of the formula are responsible, at least in part, for this rejection. Moreover, this rejection is not evident when the investigators test older-aged infants with other unfamiliar, but non-hydrolysate, formulas. In other words, the rejection appears to be in response to a particular component or components of protein hydrolysate formulas. This shift in acceptability can be ameliorated by prior exposure. That is, if these formulas are introduced to infants within the first few months of life and are fed continuously, they remain highly acceptable throughout infancy and early childhood. These observations implicate a sensitive period during development, occurring somewhere before 4 months of age, during which exposure to a formula, which is unpalatable to adults and infants over 4 months of age without exposure, renders it acceptable and presumably palatable. To the investigators' knowledge, this is the clearest example of a sensitive period in the development of responses to foods and flavors in humans thus far identified.

There is a paucity of information on whether and how the composition of formulas fed to infants influences their short-term feeding behaviors during the first few months of life. The primary objective of this longitudinal study is to determine the period during early infancy when exposure to the casein-hydrolysate formula, Nutramigen, renders it acceptable during later infancy. The study also aims to determine how early sensory experiences with formula impact upon food acceptance during infancy (8-9 months of age) and childhood. The investigators will also explore how variation in the genes that encode for taste receptors influence preferences for foods and other behaviors.

Description

This is a basic research, longitudinal and experimental study in which infants will be randomized into one of six groups (N=10-15 per group) differing in the timing and type of formula that the infant will be fed during each month of the 7-month exposure period. Each mother-infant dyad will be studied from the 2-3rd week of life until approximately 9 months of age. When the infant is less than three weeks of age and the mother's decision to formula feed is well established, infants will be randomized into one of six groups differing in the timing and type of formula that the infant will be fed during each month of the 7-month exposure period. One group (Control EEEEEEE) will be assigned to a milk-based formula, Enfamil (E), whereas another group (NNNNNNN) will be assigned to Nutramigen (N) during the entire 7-month period of this study. The other 4 groups will be assigned to feed Nutramigen for specified periods during their first seven months of life (Groups ENEEEEE, EEENEEE, ENNNEEE).

A variety of methodologies developed in our laboratory will be employed to capture the infants' responses to a particular flavor or taste after the exposure period. That is, at the end of the exposure period, infants will be videotaped while they are 1) feeding formulas; 2) feeding foods (e.g., cereal; soups) that differ in flavors; and 3) exploring scented toys. Each month, infants will be weighed and measured for length as well as evaluated for cognitive and motor development and mothers will completed standardized questionnaires regarding infant temperament. A cheek swab from the mothers and infants will be obtained and genotyped for taste receptor and taste- and obesity- related genes.

Study Design

Allocation: Randomized, Control: Active Control, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver), Primary Purpose: Basic Science

Conditions

Healthy Infants

Intervention

Nutramigen (Flavor and Type of Infant Formula), Enfamil, milk-based formula

Location

Monell Chemical Senses Center
Philadelphia
Pennsylvania
United States
19104

Status

Active, not recruiting

Source

Monell Chemical Senses Center

Results (where available)

View Results

Links

Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:18:41-0400

Clinical Trials [1047 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

The Effect of Feeding Infant Formula Containing Prebiotics and/or Probiotics

The study is intended to evaluate the microorganisms found in infant stools when consuming study formulas containing prebiotics and/or probiotics compared to infants consuming mother's own...

Growth and Tolerance of Healthy Term Infants Fed Cow's Milk-Based Infant Formulas

This clinical trial will compare the growth and tolerance of infants who consume an investigational cow's milk-based infant formula to those who consume a marketed cow's milk-based infant ...

Metabolomic Profile of Urine Samples From Neonates Fed With Breast Milk and an Infant Formula Enriched With Synbiotics

The aim of this trial is to verify - based on metabolomics and other anthropometric parameters - whether exclusive nutrition of infant formula enriched with synbiotics (probiotics B.lactis...

Effects of Early Nutrition on Growth

The primary objective of the study is to compare the growth of infants fed standard infant formula with infants fed a reduced calorie and protein formula.

Effect of Feeding Mode on Infant Growth and Cognitive Function

This study is intended to compare growth, nutritional status, and brain development in children fed an Investigational cow's milk based formula containing a nutrient-rich whey protein, a s...

PubMed Articles [21824 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Protein Digestion and Quality of Goat and Cow Milk Infant Formula and Human Milk Under Simulated Infant Conditions.

To determine the kinetics of true ileal protein digestion and digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) of a goat milk based infant formula (GIF), a cow milk based infant formula (CIF) and hum...

Shift from IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy to food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome in two infants.

A 1-month-old male infant, only breastfed from birth, developed a localized edema of the hands and feet a few minutes after his first ingestion of a cow's milk (CM) formula. A complete allergy work-up...

A longitudinal study of estrogen-responsive tissues and hormone concentrations in infants fed soy formula.

Chemicals with hormone-like activity, such as estrogenic isoflavones, may perturb human development. Infants exclusively fed soy-based formula are highly exposed to isoflavones, but their physiologic ...

Glycosaminoglycanomic profiling of human milk in different stages of lactation by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

Glycans in human milk serve several important biological functions that promote infant health. As kind of important glycans, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a complex family of polyanionic carbohydrate,...

Osteopontin Levels in Human Milk vary Across Countries and within Lactation Period: Data from a Multicenter Study.

Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional protein expressed in many cell types, tissues and body fluids with the highest concentrations found in milk; significantly higher in human than in bovine milk. I...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Liquid formulations for the nutrition of INFANTS, useful for those with special needs or MILK HYPERSENSITIVITY or those whose mothers are unable to breastfeed (BREAST FEEDING).

Allergic reaction to milk (usually cow's milk) or milk products. MILK HYPERSENSITIVITY should be differentiated from LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, an intolerance to milk as a result of congenital deficiency of lactase.

Adaptive antiviral defense mechanisms, in archaea and bacteria, based on DNA repeat arrays called CLUSTERED REGULARLY INTERSPACED SHORT PALINDROMIC REPEATS (CRISPR elements) that function in conjunction with CRISPR-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS (Cas proteins). Several types have been distinguished, including Type I, Type II, and Type III, based on signature motifs of CRISPR-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.

A syndrome of persistent PULMONARY HYPERTENSION in the newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN) without demonstrable HEART DISEASES. This neonatal condition can be caused by severe pulmonary vasoconstriction (reactive type), hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial muscle (hypertrophic type), or abnormally developed pulmonary arterioles (hypoplastic type). The newborn patient exhibits CYANOSIS and ACIDOSIS due to the persistence of fetal circulatory pattern of right-to-left shunting of blood through a patent ductus arteriosus (DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS, PATENT) and at times a patent foramen ovale (FORAMEN OVALE, PATENT).

Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.

More From BioPortfolio on "Sensitive Periods in Early Flavor Learning"

Advertisement
Quick Search
Advertisement
Advertisement

 

Relevant Topics

Pediatrics
Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...

Food
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...


Searches Linking to this Trial