Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Each year, Canadian emergency department physicians treat 600,000 patients with head injury. Many of these are adults with "minor head injury", i.e. loss of consciousness or amnesia and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13-15. Only 6.2% of these "minor" patients have some acute injury on computed tomography (CT scan) and only 0.5% have an epidural hematoma requiring surgery. Among Canadian teaching hospital emergency departments, we have shown a fourfold variation in use of CT and that a small but important number of intracranial hematomas are missed at the first visit.
Background: Each year, Canadian emergency department physicians treat 600,000 patients with head injury. Many of these are adults with "minor head injury", i.e. loss of consciousness or amnesia and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13-15. Only 6.2% of these "minor" patients have some acute injury on computed tomography (CT scan) and only 0.5% have an epidural hematoma requiring surgery. Among Canadian teaching hospital emergency departments, we have shown a fourfold variation in use of CT and that a small but important number of intracranial hematomas are missed at the first visit. This renewal application builds on previous MRC/CIHR Health Services Research Committee funded grants to determine feasibility (phase 0, MRC GR-13304D, 1995-96), develop a clinical decision rule for CT in minor head injury (phase I, MRC MT-13700, 1996-99, N=3,121), and prospectively validate this Canadian CT Head Rule (phase II, CIHR #42521, 2000-03, N=2,707), all part of the U of Ottawa Group Grant in Decision Support Techniques (CIHR 2000-143). The Canadian CT Head Rule is comprised of simple clinical variables and allows physicians to be much more accurate in their diagnosis of brain injury and will standardize the use of CT without jeopardizing patient care (The Lancet 2001). In the recently completed prospective validation (phase II), we confirmed the accuracy and reliability of the rule in 2,707 additional patients.
Objectives: The goal of phase III is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of an active strategy to implement the Canadian CT Head Rule into physician practice. Specific objectives are to: 1) Determine clinical impact by comparing the intervention and control sites for: a) CT Head ordering rates, b) Missed neurological intervention cases, c) Missed brain injuries, d) Number of deaths, d) Length of stay in ED, and e) Patient satisfaction; 2) Determine sustainability of the impact; 3) Evaluate performance of the Canadian CT Head Rule, with regards to: a) Accuracy, b) Physician accuracy in interpretation, and c) Physician comfort and compliance with use; 4) Conduct an economic evaluation to determine the potential for cost savings with widespread implementation; 5) Conduct an exploratory psychological process evaluation to examine whether physicians' intentions and behaviours can be predicted.
Methods: We propose a matched-pair cluster design study which compares outcomes during 3 consecutive 12-month 'before', 'after', and 'decay' periods at 6 pairs of 'intervention' and 'control' sites. These 12 hospital ED sites will be stratified as 'teaching' or 'community' hospitals, matched according to baseline CT head ordering rates, and then allocated within each pair to either intervention or control groups. During the 'after' period at the intervention sites, simple and inexpensive strategies will be employed to actively implement the Canadian CT Head Rule: a) physician group discussion and consensus, b) educational initiatives (lecture, posters, pocket cards), and c) a process-of-care modification with a mandatory reminder of the Rule at the point of requisition for radiography. These outcomes will be assessed: 1) Measures of clinical impact will compare the changes from 'before' to 'after' between the intervention and control sites: a) CT Head ordering proportions (the primary analysis); b) Number of missed brain injuries; c) Number of serious adverse outcomes; d) Length of stay in ED; e) Patient satisfaction. 2) Performance of the Canadian CT Head Rule: a) Accuracy of the rule; b) Physician accuracy of interpretation; c) Physician comfort and compliance. 3) Economic evaluation measures: a) CT head rate after discharge; b) Length of stay in ED and hospital; c) Hospital admission; d) Neurological intervention; e) Number of transfers. 4) Psychological Process Evaluation: Mail surveys of physicians before and after the intervention. During the 12-month 'decay' period, implementation strategies will continue, allowing us to evaluate the sustainability of the effect. We estimate a sample size of 2,400 patients in each period in order to have adequate power to evaluate the main outcomes.
Importance: This implementation study (phase III) is an essential step in the process of developing a new clinical decision rule / guideline for health care practitioners. Phase I successfully derived the Canadian CT Head Rule and phase II confirmed the accuracy and safety of the rule and, hence, the potential for physicians to improve care. What remains unknown is the actual change in clinical behaviour that can be effected by implementation of the Canadian CT Head Rule and whether implementation can be achieved with simple and inexpensive measures. We believe that the Canadian CT Head Rule has the potential to significantly limit health care costs and improve the efficiency of patient flow in busy Canadian EDs.
Control: Active Control, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Diagnostic
University of Alberta
Ottawa Hospital Research Institute
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:18:45-0400
The purpose of the study is to determine if a specific blood protein, S-100B, can help predict who will have a traumatic abnormality on head CT scan after a concussion. We will compare the...
Background: - Traumatic brain injury may have a range of effects, from severe and permanent disability to more subtle functional and cognitive deficits that often go undetected during ini...
The Vietnam Head Injury Study (VHIS)-Phase III is a prospective, long-term follow-up study of head-injured Vietnam veterans. The purpose of this research study is to determine the long-te...
Trauma patients are at risk for serious head trauma. The consequences of serious head trauma are often life altering. Currently, the only method available to rapidly assess the severity of...
Patients with head and neck cancer will be imaged with PET scan and CT scan in order to determine areas of the tumour that are hypoxic. It is hypothesized that PET /CT will provide inform...
Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is among the most common causes of A&E admission. Current Guidelines have clearly evidenced risk factors and neurological signs that should suggest a head CT scan at...
Two clinical decision rules, the Canadian CT Head Rule and the New Orleans Criteria, set the standard to guide clinicians in determining which patients with minor head trauma need computed tomography ...
Head injury is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity at all ages and may develop into intracranial haemorrhage and increasing intracranial pressure. Pre-assessment must be conducted to ...
Traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of death and disability in children worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the association between physician risk tolerance and head comput...
A perforating head injury is a type of an injury wherein the projectile passes entirely through the cranium leaving both entrance and exit wounds. It is considered less prevalent than other kinds of h...
An injury in which the damage is located on the opposite side of the primary impact site. A blow to the back of head which results in contrecoup injury to the frontal lobes of the brain is the most common type.
Recurrent seizures causally related to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Seizure onset may be immediate but is typically delayed for several days after the injury and may not occur for up to two years. The majority of seizures have a focal onset that correlates clinically with the site of brain injury. Cerebral cortex injuries caused by a penetrating foreign object (CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, PENETRATING) are more likely than closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED) to be associated with epilepsy. Concussive convulsions are nonepileptic phenomena that occur immediately after head injury and are characterized by tonic and clonic movements. (From Rev Neurol 1998 Feb;26(150):256-261; Sports Med 1998 Feb;25(2):131-6)
The use of combination of imaging techniques or platforms (e.g., MRI SCAN and PET SCAN) encompassing aspects of anatomical, functional, or molecular imaging methods.
A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.
Prolonged unconsciousness from which the individual cannot be aroused, associated with traumatic injuries to the BRAIN. This may be defined as unconsciousness persisting for 6 hours or longer. Coma results from injury to both cerebral hemispheres or the RETICULAR FORMATION of the BRAIN STEM. Contributing mechanisms include DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY and BRAIN EDEMA. (From J Neurotrauma 1997 Oct;14(10):699-713)
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...
In a clinical trial or interventional study, participants receive specific interventions according to the research plan or protocol created by the investigators. These interventions may be medical products, such as drugs or devices; procedures; or change...