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Botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A) prevents the release of acetylcholine in presynaptic terminals of the neuromuscular junction. It has been proposed to be effective in spastic conditions of the head and neck including oromandibular dystonias, bruxism, and muscular hypertrophy (1,2,3,4). However, only one randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial has been completed involving 20 patients demonstrating both objective and subjective improvement in the BTX-A treated group over those treated with saline at one week, one month, and six months (5).
Currently, in most orofacial pain practices, when the diagnosis of masticatory myofascial pain in the head region is made, patients are treated with a standard myofascial protocol. This protocol involves stretching, application of moist heat, spray and stretch, and lidocaine trigger point injections into the masticatory muscles. This is considered the standard of care among most orofacial pain practioners.
There have been no randomized, double-blinded, head-to-head trials comparing BTX-A injections to lidocaine injections in the treatment of masticatory myofacial pain. Moreover, in all studies, muscles were targeted using surface landmarks with no confirmatory tests to guarantee the medication was administered to the intended muscle. In previous studies, the medial and lateral pteryoid muscles, important masticatory muscles that is often hyperactive in masticatory myofacial pain was not injected due to lack of palpable surface landmarks. Ultrasound and EMG guidance will help us locate these muscles.
The purpose of this study is to objectively measure functional improvement in patients with masticatory myofascial pain injected with lidocaine versus BTX-A. A pilot study enrolling 20 patients is proposed. 20 patients will be randomized to receive either BTX-A or lidocaine injections into the bilateral temporalis, masseter, and medial and lateral pteryoid. Objective and subjective clinical parameters will be measured. These include pain at rest and with chewing, maximum non-assisted and assisted mouth opening, protrusive and laterotrusive jaw movements, subjective efficacy of treatment, and side-effects of treatment. Patients will be assessed at baseline, one week, one month, and three months after the procedure.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Active Control, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor), Primary Purpose: Treatment
Not yet recruiting
University of California, Los Angeles
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:18:47-0400
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A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.
State of mind or spirit that enables one to act in the face of perceived danger, difficulty, or pain.
A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the trigeminal nerve. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)
A type of pain that is perceived in an area away from the site where the pain arises, such as facial pain caused by lesion of the VAGUS NERVE, or throat problem generating referred pain in the ear.
Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.
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