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The purpose of this study is to determine if certain levels of proteins lead to inflammation of the gums. One example of such proteins being studied is called Interleukin 1 (IL-1). This protein is found at higher levels in areas of inflammation. This type of study is called an experimental gingivitis study. It will involve stopping your routine oral health care for 21 days. If you qualify, you will receive a full dental cleaning at the beginning and end of the study. Approximately 30 patients will participate in this study at the Michigan Center for Oral Health Research (MCOHR).
Gingivitis is a specific oral infectious disease that affects approximately 50% of the adult population on an average of 3 to 4 teeth. Although dental plaque is the primary etiology of most periodontal diseases, patients are not equally susceptible and do not respond similarly to professional care. Therefore, assessing the future risk of patients for developing gingivitis with possible subsequent progression to chronic periodontitis may help the clinician in elaborating a more accurate and suitable treatment plan for the patients and a better assessment of their prognoses. In fact, the prevention of plaque-induced gingivitis is still considered the first step in the maintenance of periodontal health.
Experimental gingivitis has been used widely to study the microbiology and the events that occur in the transition from a state of gingival health to inflammation. In a classical study by Löe and Theilade, periodontally healthy subjects were asked to cease all forms of oral hygiene for 3-4 weeks.
Studies of the levels of proinflammatory biomarkers have been of increased interest for the past decades. Since changes in the levels of these salivary biomarkers occur prior to clinical signs of gingivitis, their measurements may provide a more objective, earlier and accurate assessment of gingival inflammatory changes compared to the traditional bleeding and plaque indices.
Despite the clinical significance of gingivitis, little is know about the correlation between the levels of salivary biomarkers, the presence of periodontal pathogens and IL-1 polymorphism, and how this affect their susceptibility to gingivitis. If IL-1 polymorphism is indeed associated with increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines expression and the presence of specific periodontal pathogens, then screening for this polymorphism will be a valuable and necessary tool. As periodontal treatments, such as scaling and root planing, have been shown to be successful at decreasing the levels of IL-1 in the gingival crevicular fluid, a more aggressive treatment regimen may be warranted when the patient is genotype positive. If biomarkers in saliva and plaque biofilm can serve as accurate predictors of gingivitis, the ability for early detection of disease in patients is enhanced. Pro-inflammatory salivary biomarkers, specific pathogenic bacteria and genotype aid in establishing more accurate diagnostic and prognostic parameters of periodontal diseases, compared to current parameters (e.g. probing pocket depth, clinical attachment loss...) that reflect the history rather than the present and future status of disease. As a consequence, intervention can be initiated prior to irreversible tissue breakdown and oral health care costs may be reduced. Research efforts in the future should be directed toward the establishment of an affordable and practical chairside salivary test.
Observational Model: Cohort, Time Perspective: Prospective
University of Michigan Center for Oral Health Research
University of Michigan
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:19:12-0400
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