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The purpose of this study is to determine whether a change in the content of nightmares is necessary at all in the treatment of chronic nightmares or if a single confrontation with their content is sufficient to reduce nightmare frequency significantly.
The inclusion and exclusion criteria are assessed during a telephone interview. If the participants meet the criteria, they are randomly assigned to two intervention groups or an active control group. In the first session the participants who suffer from chronic nightmares are interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I and -II) to determine the clinical diagnosis; in addition, they are given questionnaires and record sheets to obtain baseline data. They are asked to record their nightmares in a "dream diary" up until the next session four weeks later. At that session they learn one of three interventions to reduce nightmares. The first group receives imagery rehearsal treatment in which participants learn to consciously alter the contents of their nightmares and then to visualize the new set of images. The second group is subjected to confrontation treatment in which they are instructed to confront their nightmares until habituation. The third group, the psychotherapeutic placebo group, just learn an imagination technique, without reference to their nightmares. At the end of the intervention session all participants receive written instructions on how to perform the learned method at home. They must also record their dreams up until the next session. That session and the last one are used for data acquisition. At these sessions, the participants are asked to fill in the questionnaires given to them at the beginning of the treatment.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Active Control, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Single Blind (Subject), Primary Purpose: Treatment
Imagery Rehearsal Treatment, confrontation, imagination
Johann Wolfgang Goethe University - Department of Clinical Psychology and Ppsychotherapy
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Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-07-23T21:13:20-0400
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The use of mental images produced by the imagination as a form of psychotherapy. It can be classified by the modality of its content: visual, verbal, auditory, olfactory, tactile, gustatory, or kinesthetic. Common themes derive from nature imagery (e.g., forests and mountains), water imagery (e.g., brooks and oceans), travel imagery, etc. Imagery is used in the treatment of mental disorders and in helping patients cope with other diseases. Imagery often forms a part of HYPNOSIS, of AUTOGENIC TRAINING, of RELAXATION TECHNIQUES, and of BEHAVIOR THERAPY. (From Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, vol. 4, pp29-30, 1994)
A new pattern of perceptual or ideational material derived from past experience.
Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.
The replacement of illogical and unrealistic ideas with more realistic and adaptive ones through direct intervention and confrontation by the therapist.
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