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Does remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) induced by a brief period of occlusion of blood flow to the lower extremity prior to organ recovery in deceased donors, improve short and long term outcomes after transplantation of kidneys, livers and pancreas? To test this hypothesis deceased organ donors will be randomized to receive either RIPC or No RIPC before organ recovery. RIPC will be induced in the operating room after commencement of procurement surgery. RIPC will be induced by tourniquet-induced occlusion of blood flow to the lower extremity for 10 minutes in each side, for a total duration of 20 minutes. The remainder of the organ recovery and organ preservation will be as per standard of practice. Recovered livers, kidneys and pancreas will be transplanted into allocated recipients. Transplantation and patient management after transplantation will be as per standard of practice.
Organ-specific function and cell injury parameters will be utilized to assess the early postoperative outcomes of individual organs and recipients. Long term outcomes will be assessed by graft and recipient survival.
Deceased organ donors and recipients of kidneys, livers and pancreata from the study donors comprise the study subjects.
I. A. Inclusion Criteria All deceased organ donors aged > 5 years in acute care hospitals in the donor service area of the New Jersey Organ and Tissue Sharing Network (NJTO).
I.B. Exclusion criteria
1. Tissue only donors
2. Age < 5 years
3. When it is known before organ recovery that both kidneys will be leaving New JerseyIntervention: RIPC will be induced by inflation of a tourniquet around the upper thigh to 200 mm of Hg for a period of 10 minutes. After tourniquet deflation on one side, a similar procedure will be followed immediately on the opposite side. Thus, a total period of 20 minutes of lower extremity vascular occlusion will be utilized to induce RIPC. In instances of severe trauma to one lower extremity precluding tourniquet use, we will employ two cycles of 10 minutes of tourniquet occlusion in the non-traumatized lower extremity with 10 min of reperfusion in between. RIPC will be induced after commencement of procurement surgery but completed 30-45 min before circulatory arrest and initiation of organ perfusion.
Additionally, liver biopsies (a wedge measuring 0.75 x 0.75 cm and a Tru-cut needle biopsy from the right lobe) are performed in as soon as the abdomen is opened. A wedge (1 x 0.3 cm) kidney biopsy is performed in all donors after kidney recovery but before packing the organs. All biopsies except kidney biopsies in donors aged < 50 years, are as per standard of care. The remainder of organ recovery, organ packaging and preservation are as per standard of practice. All kidneys recovered from donors classified as Extended Criteria Donors (donor age > 60 years or age 50-59 years with two of the following three criteria- cerebrovascular cause of death, a history of hypertension, terminal serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL) are routinely perfused ex-vivo in a pulsatile hypothermic perfusion apparatus until transplantation.
. This may happen in a few instances either because of excellent tissue match with recipients outside New Jersey or in high risk behavior donors where all NJ kidney transplant centers have declined donor kidneys before organ recovery
4. Deceased donors in whom a decision is made not to recover both kidneys (severe kidney disease, renal failure, etc)
5. Severe trauma to both lower extremities precluding induction of RIPC
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Active Control, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator), Primary Purpose: Treatment
Remote Ischemic Preconditioning by Inflation of Pneumatic Tourniquet
Enrolling by invitation
University of Medicine and Dentistry New Jersey
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:19:24-0400
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The application of repeated, brief periods of vascular occlusion at the onset of REPERFUSION to reduce REPERFUSION INJURY that follows a prolonged ischemic event. The techniques are similar to ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING but the time of application is after the ischemic event instead of before.
A technique in which tissue is rendered resistant to the deleterious effects of prolonged ischemia and reperfusion by prior exposure to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion. (Am J Physiol 1995 May;268(5 Pt 2):H2063-7, Abstract)
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Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.
Ischemic injury to the OPTIC NERVE which usually affects the OPTIC DISK (optic neuropathy, anterior ischemic) and less frequently the retrobulbar portion of the nerve (optic neuropathy, posterior ischemic). The injury results from occlusion of arterial blood supply which may result from TEMPORAL ARTERITIS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; COLLAGEN DISEASES; EMBOLISM; DIABETES MELLITUS; and other conditions. The disease primarily occurs in the sixth decade or later and presents with the sudden onset of painless and usually severe monocular visual loss. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy also features optic disk edema with microhemorrhages. The optic disk appears normal in posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. (Glaser, Neuro-Ophthalmology, 2nd ed, p135)
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