Lowering Salt Intake in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Pilot Randomized Crossover Trial

2014-08-27 03:19:25 | BioPortfolio




It is well recognized that excess dietary salt intake plays a major role in the development of hypertension. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is associated with excess salt and water retention (excess volume) which is associated with hypertension.


Hypothesis 1:

Dietary salt restriction will improve volume status in subjects with CKD stages 3-4 as assessed by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA).

Hypothesis 2:

Dietary salt restriction will result in improved blood pressure control in patients with CKD stages 3-4.

Hypothesis 3:

Dietary salt restriction will decrease albuminuria in patients with CKD stages 3-4.

Patients and Trial Design: This randomized crossover pilot study is designed to assess the effect of salt restriction on volume status in patients with CKD stages 3 and 4.

Subjects will be randomized to a treatment order: (1) 4 weeks of salt restriction of <85 mmol sodium per day, a 2 week washout period, and 4 weeks of usual salt diet, OR (2) 4 weeks of usual diet, 2 weeks washout, and 4 weeks of salt restriction. Patients will receive dietary counseling in person at each study visit and at weekly intervals by phone calls from study dieticians. At weeks 0, 4, 6 and 10, patients will undergo assessments for (i) physical examination with assessments for weight, blood pressure, pulse, anthropometrics and a standardized clinical assessment of volume status. (ii) volume status using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) (iii) 24-hour urine testing for, albumin, creatinine and aldosterone Every 2 weeks throughout the study, a 24-hour urine sodium will be measured for compliance, and serum electrolytes will be assessed for safety.

Data Analysis: BIA measurements in the low salt group will be compared with the regular diet group using the standard linear model analysis for 2x2 crossover trials. Additionally, 24-hour ambulatory and static blood pressure and 24-hour urine aldosterone levels will be compared between the two groups.

Future Implications: A significant reduction in the degree of volume expansion (as assessed by BIA) and blood pressure as a result of a salt restricted diet would have implications for renal and cardiovascular protection and would warrant confirmation by a larger randomized trial.

Study Design

Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment


Kidney Disease


Low Salt Diet, Usual Salt Diet


University of North Carolina
Chapel Hill
North Carolina
United States




University of Michigan

Results (where available)

View Results


Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:19:25-0400

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal. This does not include DIET THERAPY, a specific diet prescribed in the treatment of a disease.

A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)

A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.

A diet which is devoid of GLUTENS from WHEAT; BARLEY; RYE; and other wheat-related varieties. The diet is designed to reduce exposure to those proteins in gluten that trigger INFLAMMATION of the small intestinal mucosa in patients with CELIAC DISEASE.

A course of food intake that is high in FATS and low in CARBOHYDRATES. This diet provides sufficient PROTEINS for growth but insufficient amount of carbohydrates for the energy needs of the body. A ketogenic diet generates 80-90% of caloric requirements from fats and the remainder from proteins.

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