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TAP Block for Gynaecological Laparotomies - a Comparison of Ultrasound-guided Block and Blind Technique

2014-08-27 03:19:30 | BioPortfolio

Summary

Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is an application of local anaesthetic solution into the plane between internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles at the triangle of Petit located superiorly to the iliac crests bilaterally. Anterior divisions of segmental spinal nerves, which provide innervation to the abdominal wall, run inside this compartment. TAP block been shown to provide good postoperative pain relief following surgical laparotomies, gynaecological laparotomies, appendicectomies, inguinal hernia repairs and open prostatectomies. The goal of this study is to compare the effect of blind and ultrasound-guided TAP block on postoperative pain relief and morphine consumption following to gynaecological laparotomies. Null research hypothesis for the study is that there is no difference between the performance (as defined by morphine consumption and patient satisfaction/ pain scores) of the TAP block procedure via 'blind' or ultrasound guided techniques for gynaecological laparotomies.

Description

Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is an application of local anaesthetic solution into the plane between internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles at the triangle of Petit located superiorly to the iliac crests bilaterally. Anterior divisions of segmental spinal nerves, which provide innervation to the abdominal wall, run inside this compartment. The TAP block has been shown to provide good postoperative pain relief following surgical laparotomies, gynaecological laparotomies, appendicectomies, inguinal hernia repairs and open prostatectomies. It also reduces the post operative morphine consumption seen after such procedures. This allows a more comfortable recovery with reduced incidence of nausea and vomiting, as well as potentially earlier mobilisation and discharge.

Currently the technique employed is that first described by Mc Donnell. This involves a blind 'two pop' technique signifying the needle passing through the two muscle layers. On detection of these two pops the local anaesthetic is injected into this plane between the muscle layers. It is the anaesthetising of the nerves in this muscle plane that aides post operative pain relief for as much as 24 hours. TAP nerve blocks have become common practice due to the very low reported complication rate occurring while using the 'blind technique'. Such complications are minor in themselves. It is our hope that these complications will be further reduced with the use of an ultrasound guided technique. The use of an ultrasound machine would allow the direct visualisation of the needles progress through the tissues and muscle layers. It would confirm the correct position during infiltration of local anaesthetic and prevent inadvertent puncturing of organs or entry to the abdominal space.

Studies have shown that in other commonly used nerve blocks, the introduction of an ultrasound guided technique has improved the efficacy of the nerve block itself. We hope to show a similar trend when using an ultrasound guided technique in the insertion of a TAP block. Trials are underway comparing different dosage and volume regimes, but to our knowledge no other trial is comparing the use of an ultrasound machine to the conventional 'blind' technique in order to assess pain relief and morphine consumption post operatively.

Only recently have ultrasound machines become commonplace in anaesthetic departments, and we feel this research will show their valuable contribution to patient comfort in this subgroup of patients undergoing abdominal gynaecological procedures. We wish to assess whether we can achieve better patient satisfaction, less morphine consumption and ultimately shorter hospital stay with an ultrasound technique compared to a blind technique.

Study Design

Allocation: Randomized, Control: Active Control, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Single Blind (Subject), Primary Purpose: Treatment

Conditions

Laparotomy

Intervention

Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block

Location

Antrim Area Hospital
Antrim
Co. Antrim
United Kingdom
BT41 2RL

Status

Recruiting

Source

Northern Health and Social Care Trust

Results (where available)

View Results

Links

Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:19:30-0400

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Transversus Abdominis Plane Block in Children Undergoing Ostomy Surgery

The primary objective of this study is to determine if the use of Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP) blocks reduce early postoperative opioid requirements.

Intraoperative Transversus Abdominis Plane Block for Gynecologic Surgery (GYNTAP)

This study attempts to learn about the effectiveness of a modification to the Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP) block that works by anaesthetizing the sensory afferents of the abdominal wa...

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Inguinal hernia repair with mesh has a high incidence of postoperative chronic pain. Transversus abdominis plane block is a current intervention to support postoperative analgesia, however...

Comparison of Transversus Abdominis Plane Block and Erector Spinae Plane Block in Inguinal Hernia Repair

Multimodal analgesia is used to control postoperative pain in inguinal hernia repair. Transversus abdominis plane block is an effective regional anesthesia technique for postoperative anal...

PubMed Articles [2207 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Sensory Assessment and Regression Rate of Bilateral Oblique Subcostal Transversus Abdominis Plane Block in Volunteers.

The analgesic effect and duration of a transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block remain controversial. Transversus abdominis plane blocks are effective for somatic/incisional pain but do not provide ana...

Ultrasound-guided lateral and subcostal transversus abdominis plane block in calves: A cadaveric study.

To describe and assess the ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block feasibility in calf cadavers, to compare two injection volumes and to evaluate possible undesired solution spreads.

Baclofen Pump Replacement in a Patient With End-Stage Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Case Report Demonstrating Transversus Abdominis Plane Block as the Sole Anesthetic.

A patient with end-stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) presented for Baclofen pump replacement. She underwent a left transversus abdominis plane block to anesthetize the left lower quadrant of t...

Conventional Epidural vs Transversus Abdominis Plane Block with Liposomal Bupivacaine: A Randomized Trial in Colorectal Surgery.

Colorectal surgery is a focus of enhanced recovery protocols (ERP). The utility of Transversus Abdominis Plane block (TAP) for abdominal surgery has demonstrated effectiveness in ERP, however no direc...

Transversus abdominis plane (tap) block in laparoscopic colorectal surgery improves postoperative pain management: a meta-analysis.

Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a locoregional anesthesia technique of growing interest in abdominal surgery. However, its efficacy following laparoscopic colorectal surgery is still debate...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)

Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.

Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.

Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.

Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.

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