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Mitral valve regurgitation (MR) is the second most common valvular heart disease encountered in adults. Furthermore, atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia seen in clinical practice. Overall, 70% of the patients with severe MR are associated with AF independent from etiopathogenesis of MR. AF is clinically divided into three subgroups; 1) paroxysmal AF, occurs as episodes and ends spontaneously, 2) persistent AF, episodes terminate only with medical or electrical cardioversion, and 3) permanent AF, current medical treatments and electrical cardioversion does not restore a normal sinus rhythm. Despite intensive electrophysiological studies, the molecular mechanisms and pathways of AF are still not fully elucidated.
Apoptosis which has distinctive morphological and biochemical characteristics is genetically regulated, active programmed cell death process. It is known that cardiac morphogenesis restore from apoptosis. In addition, apoptosis has an important role in several cardiovascular system pathologies. It has been shown that atrial apoptosis causes numerous arrhythmias including AF. Likewise, in the pilot study which has been performed by our study group, AF is associated with apoptosis by immunohistochemical and DNA fragmentation analysis methods.
The aim of this project is to determine the morphological criteria of apoptosis in atrial tissues of patients with AF by using electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Moreover, we will investigate the transcriptional profile of AF associated genes by oligonucleotide microarray method. The gene expression profiles of patients with AF and degenerative MR will be compared with the atrial tissue samples from the patients with degenerative MR who preserve normal sinus rhythm which will serve as controls. In summary the apoptotic pathways would be analyzed at transcriptomic and genomic level. Besides, the pathways that may interfere AF pathophysiology would also be evaluated. The expression profiles of the genes primarily verified by quantitative real time RT-PCR will be further confirmed by translation of end-result proteins determined with Western blot technique. Thus, brand-new clues about physiology of fibrillating atrial cells would be achieved.
Keywords: Atrial fibrillation, apoptosis, oligonucleotide microarray
Observational Model: Cohort, Time Perspective: Prospective
Ankara University Medical Faculty, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery,
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-07-24T14:11:39-0400
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Backflow of blood from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the LEFT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the MITRAL VALVE. This can lead to mitral valve regurgitation.
Abnormal protrusion or billowing of one or both of the leaflets of MITRAL VALVE into the LEFT ATRIUM during SYSTOLE. This allows the backflow of blood into left atrium leading to MITRAL VALVE INSUFFICIENCY; SYSTOLIC MURMURS; or CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA.
Narrowing of the passage through the MITRAL VALVE due to FIBROSIS, and CALCINOSIS in the leaflets and chordal areas. This elevates the left atrial pressure which, in turn, raises pulmonary venous and capillary pressure leading to bouts of DYSPNEA and TACHYCARDIA during physical exertion. RHEUMATIC FEVER is its primary cause.
A type of heart valve surgery that involves the repair, replacement, or reconstruction of the annulus of the MITRAL VALVE. It includes shortening the circumference of the annulus to improve valve closing capacity and reinforcing the annulus as a step in more complex valve repairs.
Regurgitation and re-chewing of previously swallowed food in RUMINANTS.