Effects of Respiratory Yoga Training on Heart Rate Variability and Baroreflex of Healthy Elderly Subjects

2014-08-27 03:19:38 | BioPortfolio


The decreases of physiological capacities which take place with senescence include diminishing respiratory capacity as well as a reduction of heart rate variability and baroreflex sensibility. Altogether, these alterations increase elderly people's frailty and have a negative impact over quality of life. Since Yoga (Indian auto-discipline) has a wide range of respiratory exercises already investigated as components for non-pharmacological treatments for hypertension (situation in which heart rate variability is also diminished), the investigators hypothesis is that the training of respiratory exercises of Yoga may have a significant positive effect on heart rate variability and baroreflex of health elderly subjects, increasing quality of life and reducing frailty.

We included 30 health elderly subjects (both sexes, from 60 years-old onwards) divided into 2 randomized experimental groups: control (C) and respiration (R). Each group underwent an entry evaluation, followed by a 4-months training period, after which they were re-evaluated. Control consisted of 2 stretching classes per week, and respiration consisted of 2 respiratory exercises classes a week. Both groups were instructed to perform the exercises at home twice a day, and to keep a record of each session in a log sheet. Evaluations were: WHOQOL-OLD questionnaire for quality of life, 20 minutes of seated rest with heart rate, respiration and blood pressure acquired continuously for further spectral analysis.


Heart rate variability was performed using the autoregressive model, and the baroreflex was calculated with the spontaneous approach, both with the softwares developed in Milan by Alberto Porta in a non-invasive way.

The frequency domain analysis of heart rate, respiration and systolic blood pressure were conducted, consisting of calculating the power spectral density with the minimum error predicted by Akaike's algorithm. Spectral power was then subdivided into two bands of physiological interest: low - (LF 0.03-0.15 Hz) indicating predominant sympathetic modulation, and high - (HF 0.15-0.5 Hz) frequency, indicating parasympathetic modulation of the heart. The fraction calculated dividing LF by HF (LF/HF ratio) provided information of sympathovagal balance to the heart. The spectral analysis of Systolic Blood Pressure provided information of the vasomotor tone, and the integration of heart rate information with these data also provided information about the spontaneous baroreflex gain.

Other questionnaires used were: Pittsburgh Quality of Sleep Questionnaire, Stress Symptoms Questionnaire by Marilda Lipp - validated in Brazil, and Beck's anxiety and depression inventories.

Study Design

Allocation: Randomized, Control: Placebo Control, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment


Elderly Subjects


Stretching Exercises, Respiratory Exercises conducted twice a day for 10 minutes


Heart Institute (InCor)
Sao Paulo




University of Sao Paulo

Results (where available)

View Results


Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:19:38-0400

Clinical Trials [2821 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Acute Effects of Static Stretching in Warm-up

In this study the investigators want to address acute effects of warm-up and static stretching on short-term muscular performance of football players. Static stretching exercises are often...

Effect of Different Volumes of Training of Pilates Exercises on Elderly

It will be an experimental study conducted with elderly of both sexes, these will be divided randomly into three groups and the intervention will happen twice a week, for 60 minutes, for 1...

Effects of Respiratory Exercises in Patients With Hemiplegia

This study evaluates the effects of respiratory exercises on respiratory function test parameters and ultrasonographic diaphragmatic measurements. Half of the hemiplegic patients will rece...

Bracing and Strengthening for Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) is a problem with the tendon connecting one of the lower leg muscles to the foot bone. PTTD can cause pain, swelling, and a flattened foot and ma...

Effects of Slump Stretching vs Lumbar Mobilization With Exercises in Relieving Non-radiculating Low Back Pain

This study will be conducted to determine the effects of slump stretching vs lumbar mobilization with exercises in relieving non-radiculating low back pain. There will be two groups; Group...

PubMed Articles [9214 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

The effect of functional stretching exercises on functional outcomes in spastic stroke patients: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

Stroke is the biggest cause of disability in adults. Spasticity is a primary impairment of stroke with a highly variable prevalence. In the present research, we aimed to determine the impact of functi...

Stability of Kinect for range of motion analysis in static stretching exercises.

Physical rehabilitation aims people with physical impairments to enhance and restore their functional ability. The Microsoft Kinect v1 and v2 technologies apply depth information and machine vision te...


Although stretching exercises are commonly used in clinical and athletic practice, there is a lack of evidence regarding the methodological variables that guide the prescription of stretching programs...

Combined exercise is a modality for improving insulin resistance and aging-related hormone biomarkers in elderly Korean women.

The functional decline of the endocrine and immune systems with aging causes changes in the regulation of the body's metabolism and defense functions. Although it is impossible to stop aging artificia...

Technology-assisted ankle rehabilitation improves balance and gait performance in stroke survivors: A randomized controlled study with 1-month follow-up.

Many stroke survivors have limited ankle range of motion (ROM) caused by weak dorsiflexors and stiff plantarflexors. Passive ankle stretching exercises with physical therapists or a stretching board a...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.

Therapeutic exercises aimed to deepen inspiration or expiration or even to alter the rate and rhythm of respiration.

The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.

Technique based on muscle relaxation during self-hypnotic exercises. It is used in conjunction with psychotherapy.

Works consisting of collections of practice questions and drills, generally for instructional or review use.

More From BioPortfolio on "Effects of Respiratory Yoga Training on Heart Rate Variability and Baroreflex of Healthy Elderly Subjects"

Quick Search


Relevant Topics

Asthma COPD Cystic Fibrosis Pneumonia Pulmonary Medicine Respiratory Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are any infection of the sinuses, throat, airways or lungs.  They're usually caused by viruses, but they can also ...

Cardiology is a specialty of internal medicine.  Cardiac electrophysiology : Study of the electrical properties and conduction diseases of the heart. Echocardiography : The use of ultrasound to study the mechanical function/physics of the h...

Alternative Medicine
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is the term for medical products and practices that are not part of standard care. Standard care is what medical doctors, doctors of osteopathy, and allied health professionals, such as nurses and physical the...

Searches Linking to this Trial