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The aim of this study is the comparison between the effects of supplementation with 25000 IU preformed vitamin A (retinyl palmitate) or placebo for 3 months on immune system and Th1/Th2 balance in patients with and without atherosclerosis (documented with angiography).
Atherosclerosis, the leading cause of death and disability in the world, is considered an inflammatory disease with a complex etiology. The immune system has a prominent role in the formation, development and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. A whole range of identified cytokines have been shown to play a part in atherogenesis, some with proatherogenic properties while others having antiatherogenic properties. With increasing evidence for the significant role of inflammation and the cytokines involved together with the Th1/Th2 imbalance in atherosclerosis and its progression to Coronary artery diseases (CADs), the control of cytokine production may become potential therapeutic targets and modulation of the Th1/Th2 balance may provide a new pharmacological tool to treat this disease. Vitamin A (VA) or VA-like analogs known as retinoids, are potent hormonal modifiers of type 1 or type 2 responses but a definitive description of their mechanism(s) of action is lacking. high level dietary vitamin A enhances Th2 cytokine production and IgA responses, and is likely to decrease Th1 cytokine production. Retinoic acid inhibits IL 12 production in activated macrophages, and RA pretreatment of macrophages reduces IFNγ production and increases IL4 production in antigen primed CD4 T cells. Supplemental treatment with vitamin A or retinoic acid (RA) decreases IFNγ and increases IL5, IL10, and IL4 production. Thus, vitamin A deficiency biases the immune response in a Th1 direction, whereas high level dietary vitamin A may bias the response in a Th2 direction.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Placebo Control, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor), Primary Purpose: Prevention
vitamin A, placebo
Tehran University of Medical Sciences, School of Public Health
Iran, Islamic Republic of
Enrolling by invitation
Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:19:51-0400
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A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.
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