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Almost 50% of patients die after aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). 30% of the survivors suffer from neurological handicap and need permanent care (Suarez et al.). Even when neurological outcome is good, neuropsychological deficits are frequently observed (Ogden et al., Anderson et al.) The incidence rate of aSAH is almost 8 of 100.000 per year. Due to similar clinical symptoms to patients with hypopituitarism, several studies have analyzed the incidence of hypopituitarism after aSAH. Dysfunction of the anterior pituitary gland was found in up to 47% (Schneider et al.). GH deficiency was demonstrated in almost every fourth patient and an association with poor recovery was postulated. In Germany, the investigators would therefore expect as many as 1200 patients with incident GH deficiency. The KIMS-study is an observational GH-treatment study in adult onset growth hormone deficiency. Within the epidemiological data of KIMS, aSAH is not known as a relevant contributing cause (Brabant et al.). This resembles much of the investigators clinical experience that there is no huge prevalence of hypopituitarism after aSAH.
Objective: Evaluation of the frequency of hypopituitarism and neuropsychological dysfunction of any degree in patients with aSAH in a prospective approach.
The investigators conduct a prospective study for the evaluation of endocrine deficiency with aSAH. The investigators study patients 3, 6 and 12 month after aneurismal bleeding. Patients diagnosed with aSAH with a clinical grade of I-IV according to Hunt and Hess are included in the study. The investigators perform basal testing for the pituitary by measuring: TSH, LH, FSH, IGF-1, GH, prolactin and ACTH. For evaluation of the adrenal function the investigators perform an ACTH-stimulation test (Lindholm et al.). Subjects with evidence for adrenal or GH insufficiency are further analyzed by insulin-induced hypoglycemia testing (GH Research Society). In the neuropsychological examination, the investigators screen for verbal comprehension (Token Test, short form) and visual neglect (line bisection). Verbal and visual short term memory (digit and spatial span), visuospatial construction and figural memory (Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test), psychomotor speed, attention and concentration (Trail Making Test Part A and B, d2) as well as mental flexibility (word fluency) are assessed. Patients additionally fill out a questionnaire measuring actual depressive symptoms and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale).
Observational Model: Cohort, Time Perspective: Prospective
Aneurismal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
University Hospital Mannheim
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-07-23T21:13:35-0400
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Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
Bleeding into the SUBARACHNOID SPACE due to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Minor hemorrhages may be asymptomatic; moderate to severe hemorrhages may be associated with INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION and VASOSPASM, INTRACRANIAL.
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.
Bleeding within the SKULL induced by penetrating and nonpenetrating traumatic injuries, including hemorrhages into the tissues of CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM; as well as into the epidural, subdural and subarachnoid spaces of the MENINGES.
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