The Effects of Gum Chewing on Math Scores in Adolescents

2014-08-27 03:26:14 | BioPortfolio


Context: Gum chewing has been shown to increase cognitive functioning. With the rise in standardized testing of school-age children and the concurrent attempts to improve their scores, finding simple and inexpensive methods to bolster performance is needed.

Objective: To examine the effects of gum chewing on standardized test scores and class grades in a group of 8th grade math students.

Design: Math classes were randomized to a gum chewing (GC) condition that provided students with gum during class and testing, or a control condition with no gum (NG) provided during class and testing. This study was conducted during the Spring 2008 school semester.

Setting: A charter school in Houston, TX.

Participants: All students enrolled in eighth grade math at the charter school were approached for recruitment in this study. A total of 108 (94%) students participated. Participants were between the ages of 13 and 16.

Main Outcome Measures: The Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS), the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ-III), and math class grades were used to assess any differences in academic performance between the GC and NGC conditions. For purposes of this study, only the math sections of the WJ-III and TAKS, which are both standardized tests, were assessed.

Our primary hypothesis was that adolescents in a gum chewing (GC) condition would have significantly improved standardized test scores and math grades compared to adolescents in a non-gum chewing (NG) control condition.

Study Design

Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Single Blind (Outcomes Assessor), Primary Purpose: Treatment


Academic Achievement in Math


Gum Chewing




Baylor College of Medicine

Results (where available)

View Results


Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:26:14-0400

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