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Since the identification of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the 1980s, there have been significant advances made in the management and long-term prognosis for infected individuals. Currently, with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV-positive individuals may live a healthy and productive life for years to decades after diagnosis. As life expectancy has increased, this group of people has begun to engage in family planning. This has created a need for access to advanced reproductive technologies and fertility treatments. While attempting to achieve pregnancy, utilization of these services can help to minimize the risk of transmission in serodiscordant couples, and can allow treatment of subfertile couples. Access to these services may be limited in Ontario for a variety of reasons. The purpose of this study is to determine the access to infertility clinics and services in Ontario for couples in which one or both partners is infected with HIV.
Observational Model: Cohort, Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional
St. Michael's Hospital
St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-07-24T14:15:23-0400
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Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).
A form of male HYPOGONADISM, characterized by the presence of an extra X CHROMOSOME, small TESTES, seminiferous tubule dysgenesis, elevated levels of GONADOTROPINS, low serum TESTOSTERONE, underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics, and male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE). Patients tend to have long legs and a slim, tall stature. GYNECOMASTIA is present in many of the patients. The classic form has the karyotype 47,XXY. Several karyotype variants include 48,XXYY; 48,XXXY; 49,XXXXY, and mosaic patterns ( 46,XY/47,XXY; 47,XXY/48,XXXY, etc.).
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)
Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the causative agent of AIDS. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus, more commonly known as HIV, is a member of the lentivirus sub-set of the retrovirus family of pathogens. It causes AIDS, or Acquired Immuno Deficiency Sy...
Standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) consists of the combination of at least three antiretroviral (ARV) drugs to maximally suppress the HIV virus and stop the progression of HIV disease. Huge reductions have been seen in rates of death and suffering whe...