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Gender and Neural Substrates of Stress and Craving

2014-08-27 03:27:33 | BioPortfolio

Summary

Cocaine dependence is an insidious disease underscored by a powerful proclivity to relapse despite an individual's ability to recognize the deleterious consequences of continued drug use. To date, there are only a limited number of treatments, and no FDA approved medications for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Attempts to find reliable and successful treatments for cocaine dependence may be marred by gender differences in brain chemistry, structure, and function that are manifested as drug craving and relapse. For example, cues, drug exposure, and stress promote relapse, yet females appear be more susceptible to stress induced relapse, while males may be more susceptible to cue induced relapse. Therefore identifying the neural substrates involved in processing the valence of internal and external stimuli may provide further insight into cocaine dependence and provide more effective therapeutic strategies aimed at preventing relapse.

Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) is a pharmacological activator of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, and has been implicated in stress induced drug relapse. Corticotropin releasing hormone receptors are located at extrahypothalamic brain nuclei that have been implicated in determining the significance of both internal (somatic) and external (environmental) stimuli. The primary directive of this pilot project is to utilize functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify possible brain nuclei associated with with stress induced drug craving in cocaine dependent females.

Study Design

Observational Model: Case Control, Time Perspective: Prospective

Conditions

Cocaine Dependence

Intervention

Acthrel

Location

Clinical Neurosciences Division-Medical University of South Carolina
Charleston
South Carolina
United States
29425

Status

Recruiting

Source

Medical University of South Carolina

Results (where available)

View Results

Links

Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:27:33-0400

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

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SMOKING of COCAINE.

Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.

An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.

Strong physiological and emotional dependence on OPIUM.

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