Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Studies have shown that choline is a necessary part of the human diet. Choline is important in making membranes for all the cells in the body, and for making chemicals that are responsible for nerve function. Studies have also shown that choline improves memory of rats when they are given choline at early stages in their lives. The purpose of this study is to find out whether choline supplementation (provided as a choline dietary supplement) in pregnant women will improve memory function of their babies after they are born.
In this study, we hypothesize that high dietary choline consumption during pregnancy and lactation will:
1. Increase maternal choline concentration in plasma
2. Increase breast milk choline concentration
3. Enhance memory performance in the children born of supplemented mothers
The development of brain during critical periods in embryogenesis is vulnerable to changes in diet, specifically changes in choline intake. Babies born of mothers eating more choline are smarter on memory testing. These effects of dietary choline have been repeatedly demonstrated in rodent models in a series of studies funded by the NIH during the last eight years. Specifically, prenatal choline supplementation in rats facilitates cognitive function and visuospatial memory, whereas choline deficiency impairs divided attention and accelerates the age-related decline in temporal processing. There are two sensitive periods in rat brain development during which treatment with choline produces long-lasting enhancement of spatial memory that is lifelong. The first occurs during embryonic days 12-17 (rats give birth on day 21) and the second, during postnatal days 16-30. Choline supplementation during these critical periods elicits a major improvement in memory performance at all stages of training on a 12-arm radial maze. These changes in memory are correlated with decreases in the threshold for induction of long-term potentiation and with biochemical changes. Choline supplementation in pregnant rats decreases choline acetyltransferase activity and increases phospholipase D (PLD) activity in the hippocampus of offspring. Also, it increases the size of the cell body of cholinergic neurons. In contrast choline deficiency increases the activity of cholinergic system, but does not affect the basal level of PLD activity in hippocampus. These long-lasting functional, anatomical, and biochemical alterations may be related to the changes in neurogenesis and differentiation in fetal hippocampus and septum, areas of brain that are important for normal spatial learning and memory.
It is not known if these findings in rodents are likely to be true in humans, as human and rat brains mature at different rates. Moreover, rat brain is comparatively more mature at birth than is the human brain, but in humans hippocampal development may start around 20 weeks gestation and continue for months after birth. However, everything we know about brain development tells us that the processes seen in rodents are the same as those that occur in the developing human brain. For this reason, it is extremely likely that the robust effects we observe for choline in rodent brain have importance in the human. The research is the first major study in humans to determine whether maternal diet and diet during the baby's first year influences brain function.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Placebo Control, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Phosphatidylcholine, Corn oil placebo
University of North Carolina
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:30:33-0400
The purpose of this study is to determine whether supplementation with phosphatidylcholine lowers plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy men.
Follow-Up Study with Retarded Release Phosphatidylcholine in Ulcerative Colitis Objectives: The objective of the study is to evaluate the follow up of patients treated with retarded ...
The purpose of this study is to find the optimal dose of retarded release Phosphatidylcholine in the most severe form of ulcerative colitis. The hypothesis is that ulcerative colitis (UC)...
This clinical trial phase I in healthy volunteers is intended to describe the oral bioavailability of the silybin-phosphatidylcholine complex by calculating the area under the curve (AUC0-...
The objectives of this trial are to assess the effects of corn oil and coconut oil on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations, and other aspects of the fasting lipoprote...
Although placebo analgesia is a well-recognized phenomenon with important clinical implications, the possibility that placebo effects occur during sleep has received little attention. This experimenta...
We evaluated the effects of therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses of tramadol hydrochloride on the corrected QT (QTc) interval in healthy adults (aged 18-55 years) in a randomized, phase I, double-b...
The objective of this study was to evaluate the electrocardiographic effects of hawthorn in healthy adult volunteers. It was double-blind cross-over trial randomized 20 healthy adult volunteers to rec...
The placebo effect is considered the core example of mind-body interactions. However, individual differences produce large placebo response variability in both healthy volunteers and patients. The pla...
Placebo hypoalgesia has been found to play an important role in every health care by modulating patients' responses to pharmacologically active analgesic treatments. It may be seen as reflecting the c...
Syrup made from corn used widely in foods and beverages as a cheaper alternative sweetener to SUCROSE (common table sugar). It is generated by enzymatic processing of natural corn syrup to produce a liquid most widely composed of 42 or 55% FRUCTOSE, GLUCOSE, and various POLYSACCHARIDES.
Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.
Healthy People Programs are a set of health objectives to be used by governments, communities, professional organizations, and others to help develop programs to improve health. It builds on initiatives pursued over the past two decades beginning with the 1979 Surgeon General's Report, Healthy People, Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives, and Healthy People 2010. These established national health objectives and served as the basis for the development of state and community plans. These are administered by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP). Similar programs are conducted by other national governments.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Misunderstanding among individuals, frequently research subjects, of scientific methods such as randomization and placebo controls.
Obstetrics and gynaecology
Fertility Menopause Obstetrics & Gynaecology Osteoporosis Women's Health Obstetrics and gynaecology comprises the care of the pregnant woman, her unborn child and the management of diseases specific to women. Most consultant...
Women's Health - key topics include breast cancer, pregnancy, menopause, stroke Follow and track Women's Health News on BioPortfolio: Women's Health News RSS Women'...
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...