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The purpose is to examine the safety and efficacy of 16wks of pioglitazone (Actos; 30mg/d) with and without aerobic and strength exercise training for reducing glucose intolerance and central adiposity in HIV-infected people. We anticipate that pioglitazone + exercise training will improve glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and reduce central adiposity more than pioglitazone alone. These improvements should translate into reduced cardiovascular disease risk in HIV-infected people.
Our prior research has examined the pathogenesis and potential treatments for metabolic complications in people living with HIV. We have adopted the "lipotoxicity" hypothesis for Metabolic Syndrome X to explain the pathogenesis of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and fat redistribution in HIV: increased lipolysis and mobilization of lipids and free fatty acids from subcutaneous adipose depots leads to their excessive deposition in muscle and liver which contributes to dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, increased hepatic glucose output, and possibly visceral fat accumulation. Effective treatments have not been identified. Consensus groups recommend regular exercise and dietary modifications as primary and pharmacologic interventions as secondary treatments for the syndromes. We propose to test the efficacy of aerobic and weight lifting exercise training and an oral insulin-sensitizing agent (pioglitazone) as treatments for HIV-associated IGT and fat redistribution. We propose a 4-month, 2-group randomized study to evaluate the efficacy of pioglitazone and exercise + pioglitazone in 40 men and 40 women living with HIV and IGT and fat redistribution. We will measure: insulin sensitivity, glucose disposal rate, hepatic glucose production rate (5hr-hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp with 6,6-[2H2]-glucose); whole-body and regional fat and muscle content (1H-MRI of the abdomen and thigh & DEXA), soleus muscle and liver lipid content (1H-MRS), muscle and fat PPARgamma/alpha mRNA and protein expression, serum lipid profiles, and serum adiponectin levels before and at the end of 4 months of treatment. We hypothesize that exercise training + pioglitazone will be more effective than pioglitazone alone at improving insulin sensitivity, reducing visceral fat, liver and muscle lipid content, and increasing peripheral subcutaneous fat content in HIV-infected people. We hypothesize that combined treatment will be more effective because exercise training will activate PPARalpha expression in muscle and pioglitazone will activate PPARy expression in fat and muscle. We anticipate that this project will provide direct evidence that supports the combined use of exercise training and pioglitazone in people living with HIV and experiencing metabolic and anthropomorphic disorders that increase cardiovascular disease risk.
Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Pioglitazone, Pioglitazone + exercise training
Washington University School of Medicine
Active, not recruiting
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:32:05-0400
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A cardiovascular exercise strategy with alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less-intense recovery periods.
A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.
The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.
Controlled physical activity, more strenuous than at rest, which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used. The intensity of exercise is often graded, using criteria such as rate of work done, oxygen consumption, and heart rate.
Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.
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