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Delirium is an organic psychiatric syndrome characterized by fluctuating consciousness and impairment in perception, cognition and behavior. In hospitalized elderly, the prevalence of delirium ranges from 10% to 40%. If untreated, delirium is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment of delirium consists of identifying and managing underlying medical abnormalities and the associated psychiatric symptoms. Conventional antipsychotics have been the mainstay of treatment of agitation and psychosis associated with delirium; but their use is limited in terms of EPS side effects. Second-generation antipsychotic agents have been reported to have a lower incidence of extrapyramidal side effects and tardive dyskinesia which has resulted in their increased use in the treatment of delirious patients. However, there is still no consensus regarding standard pharmacologic treatment of this syndrome that takes use of second-generation antipsychotic agents into account.
Risperidone and zotepine have a lower incidence of EPS and are effective in treating disturbing psychotic behaviors. We hope to compare the efficacy and safety of risperidone and zotepine in the treatment of delirium and the correlation between the severity of delirium with autonomic dysfunction.
Qualified inpatients will be enrolled and randomly given a flexible-dose regimen of Risperidone or Zotepine. Autonomic dysfunction is checked using analysis of heart rate variability before any active drug given. The initial starting dose of each drug is 1mg(risperidone) or 50 mg(zotepine) once a day. The dosage was increased depending on the status of delirium during the first 7 days and will be adjusted until patients are maximally stabilized or until intolerable adverse events necessitated cessation. Risperidone or zotepine will be tapered off in 10 days when patients are considered stable. No concomitant psychotropic medications will be used during the study except for lorazepam, which are given for severe agitation or insomnia . Patients are assessed by another rater blinded to active drug at the time of enrollment, the subsequent 12, 24,and then assessed daily until discharge. The study period is estimated to be around 12 months upon the designed number of subjects are reached.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Active Control, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Risperidone and Zolpidem for delirium
Changhua Christian Hospital
Changhua Christian Hospital
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-07-24T14:18:43-0400
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A form of DELIRIUM which occurs after GENERAL ANESTHESIA.
Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.
An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)
A disorder characterized by CONFUSION; inattentiveness; disorientation; ILLUSIONS; HALLUCINATIONS; agitation; and in some instances autonomic nervous system overactivity. It may result from toxic/metabolic conditions or structural brain lesions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp411-2)
Neurologic disorders occurring in children following lead exposure. The most frequent manifestation of childhood lead toxicity is an encephalopathy associated with chronic ingestion of lead that usually presents between the ages of 1 and 3 years. Clinical manifestations include behavioral changes followed by lethargy; CONVULSIONS; HALLUCINATIONS; DELIRIUM; ATAXIA; and vomiting. Elevated intracranial pressure (HYPERTENSION, INTRACRANIAL) and CEREBRAL EDEMA may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1210-2)
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