Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Dark chocolate is one of the richest sources of polyphenols though it has been hypothesised that the bioavailability and therefore probably the bioefficacy of epicatechin from milk chocolate was reduced compared to dark. This study is designed to compare milk and dark chocolate as a source of polyphenols with a control "chocolate" for improving a risk biomarker for vascular disease.
Dark chocolate is one of the richest sources of polyphenols, for example, a standard 40g portion of dark chocolate contains 400-800 mg of polyphenols, compared to red wine (170 mg /100ml) or an apple (200 mg/piece). Cocoa polyphenols, most notably the catechins, can exist in both lipid and water-based environments (amphipathic), meaning they can spare both lipophilic and hydrophilic vitamins. There have been a number of human trials conducted using chocolate or cocoa and measuring various endpoints. Most have been conducted with dark chocolate. An article in Nature found that the bioavailability of epicatechin from milk chocolate was substantially reduced compared to dark, and even dark taken with a glass of milk (Serafini et al 2003). The hypothesis was that the milk proteins bind to polyphenols, making them unavailable. Subsequent studies have not been able to reproduce this, but none have been conducted using solid chocolate as the first study, all have been done using a drink matrix, which may completely alter the binding interactions of the polyphenols and protein. To this end, this study is designed to compare solid chocolates as a source of polyphenols for improving a risk biomarker for vascular disease.
This study is designed as a blinded, three arm crossover trial. The primary outcome measure is to compare endothelial function after consumption of 3 chocolates (1 milk, 1 dark, 1 polyphenol-free control) with a secondary outcome of arterial stiffness. All volunteers will take all chocolate types in a crossover design. Subjects will undergo medical screening, anthropometry, physical activity and dietary assessments before randomization for the order of consumption.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Active Control, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment, Masking: Single Blind, Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Dark Chocolate, Milk Chocolate, Control (polyphenol-free) "Chocolate"
Nestle Research Center
Nestle Research Center
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:36:52-0400
Dark chocolate is one of the richest sources of polyphenols though it has been hypothesised that the bioavailability of epicatechin from milk chocolate was reduced compared to dark. The pr...
Dark chocolate (DC) is rich in epicatechin which augments nitric oxide (NO) production through endothelium-dependent influences. The increased bioavailability and activity of NO have been ...
Flavanols, present in dark chocolate, were shown to induce Nitric Oxide synthesis. Since Nitric Oxide facilitates smooth muscle relaxation, it might ease the relaxation of the LES (lower e...
The aim of this study is to investigate if dark chocolate rich in polyphenols decreases body weight/ body fat in the overweight and obese adult population.
This study aims to investigate the effect of polyphenol-rich dark chocolate (DC) on insulin resistance, adiponectin , blood pressure (BP), lipid profile in obese subjects and determine pos...
Chocolate is the most often craved food in Western societies and many individuals try to resist its temptation due to weight concerns. Suppressing chocolate-related thoughts might, however, lead to pa...
This study aims to understand the bloom process in untempered chocolate by investigating the polymorphic transformation of cocoa butter and changes in chocolate surface. Cocoa mass with varying partic...
Two experiments investigated whether attentional bias modification can inoculate people to withstand exposure to real-world appetitive food cues, namely television advertisements for chocolate product...
Does cocoa/dark chocolate supplementation have favorable effect on body weight, body mass index and waist circumference? A systematic review, meta-analysis and dose-response of randomized clinical trials.
Cocoa and dark chocolate (DC) have been reported to be effective for health promotion; however the exact effect of cocoa/DC on anthropometric measures have not been yet defined.
The antioxidants such as polyphenols, especially flavonols, present in large quantitites in cocoa, cause vasodilation, modulate inflammatory markers and cardiovascular health, and possess a range of p...
Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.
Food product prepared from fermenting, roasting, and grinding the seeds of the COCOA plant.
A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.
A water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from RED ALGAE. Chief sources are the Irish moss CHONDRUS CRISPUS (Carrageen), and Gigartina stellata. It is used as a stabilizer, for suspending COCOA in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify BEVERAGES.
Components of the usual diet that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrients. Examples of functional foods include soy, nuts, chocolate, and cranberries (From NCCAM Backgrounder, March 2004, p3). Soy, for example, provides not only protein but also PHYTOESTROGENS (isoflavones), which help reduce total blood cholesterol by lowering LDL CHOLESTEROL.
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...