Respiratory Research

12:34 EST 23rd January 2019 | BioPortfolio

Reducing antibiotic prescribing for lower respiratory tract infections six years after a multifaceted intervention.

Few studies have evaluated the long-term impact of interventions on antibiotic prescription for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). This study was aimed at evaluating the use of antibiotics prescribed for LRTIs by general practitioners (GP) who underwent a multifaceted intervention carried out six years earlier.

Influence of exercise amount and intensity on long-term weight loss maintenance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial ROS production in humans.

Sustaining a weight loss after a lifestyle intervention is challenging. The objective of the present study was to investigate if mitochondrial function is associated to the ability to maintain a weight loss. 68 former participants in an 11-12-week lifestyle intervention were recruited into two groups; weight loss maintenance (WLM; BMI 32±1 kg/m2) and weight regain (WR; BMI 43±2 kg/m2) based on w...

High Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in a Cohort of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Trinidad, West Indies.

Both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are highly prevalent in Trinidad, West Indies. Our objective was to evaluate the prevalence of DM in a cohort of Trinidadian patients with COPD and investigate the possible impact of diabetes on COPD using standard outcome measures, that is, lung function, exacerbations, quality of life and depression questionnaires, as w...

Respiratory Variability of Pulmonary Velocity-Time Integral As a New Gauge of Fluid Responsiveness For Mechanically Ventilated Patients in the ICU.

To evaluate reliability and feasibility of the respiratory variability of pulmonary velocity-time integral as a new dynamic marker of fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients.

Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Are at Higher Risk for Pneumonia, Septic Shock, and Blood Transfusions After Total Shoulder Arthroplasty.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been associated with several complications after surgery, including pneumonia, myocardial infarction, septic shock, and mortality. To the authors' knowledge, there has been no work analyzing the impact of COPD on complications after total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). Although previous work has elucidated the complications COPD has on TKA and THA, ex...

Which physicians are taking care of people with COPD?

There is limited knowledge on what proportions of COPD patients receive ambulatory care from primary care physicians, pulmonologists, or other specialists. We evaluated the types and combinations of physicians that provide ambulatory care to COPD patients.

Effects of flow pattern, device and formulation on particle size distribution of nebulized aerosol.

The evaluation of particle size recommended in the pharmacopeias requires a constant flow rate, and the method for pediatric inhaled drugs is the same as for adult drugs. In this study, the aerosol concentration and particle size distribution (PSD) were measured under a realistic breathing pattern and constant flow. Two types of nebulizer (i.e., breath-enhanced nebulizer and vibrating-mesh nebuliz...

Pleural mesothelioma: tackling a deadly cancer.

Is there an acceptable level of asbestos use?

Cystic fibrosis: a call for papers for ECFS 2019.

Adding a LAMA to ICS/LABA therapy: a meta-analysis of triple therapy in COPD.

Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting β-agonist (LABA) combination commonly prescribed to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis on the impact of adding a long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist (LAMA) to ICS/LABA combination in COPD.

Multiple respiratory microbiota profiles are associated with lower airway inflammation in children with protracted bacterial bronchitis.

Effective management of protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) is needed to prevent chronic disease (e.g. bronchiectasis). Understanding the contributions of on-going airway infection and inflammation is important to achieving optimal PBB treatments. The aim of this study was to compare bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) microbiota, bacterial biomass and inflammatory markers in children with PBB and age-...

Analysis of motor and respiratory function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy(DMD) shows motor and respiratory impairment.

Multiplexed detection and identification of respiratory pathogens using the NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel.

The Luminex® NxTAG® Respiratory Pathogen Panel (NxTAG RPP) is an IVD-cleared assay for the simultaneous detection and identification of nucleic acids from 18 respiratory viruses and 2 (or 3 outside of the U.S.) atypical bacterial pathogens in nasopharyngeal swabs. Its scalability allows concurrent testing of up to 96 samples in a single batch. Nucleic acid extracted from 200 µl of raw specimen ...

Lycopene mitigates pulmonary emphysema induced by cigarette smoke in a murine model.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory lung disease characterized by a non-fully reversible airflow limitation comprising chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema both being induced by cigarette smoke (CS) exposure. Lycopene has shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can prevent acute lung inflammation and emphysema. We hypothesized that administration w...

Cluster-randomised trial of a nurse-led advance care planning session in patients with COPD and their loved ones.

Advance care planning (ACP) is uncommon in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Temporal trends in survival following ward-based NIV for acute hypercapnic respiratory failure in patients with COPD.

Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is recommended for treatment of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF) in acute exacerbations of COPD. National UK audit data suggests that mortality rates are rising in COPD patients treated with NIV.

RAGE is a Critical Mediator of Pulmonary Oxidative Stress, Alveolar Macrophage Activation and Emphysema in Response to Cigarette Smoke.

The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a cell membrane receptor, recognizes ligands produced by cigarette smoke (CS) and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD. We demonstrate that deletion or pharmacologic inhibition of RAGE prevents development of CS-induced emphysema. To identify molecular pathways by which RAGE mediates smoking related lung injury we performed unbias...

Perfusion Cultures Require Optimum Respiratory ATP Supply to Maximize Cell Specific and Volumetric Productivities.

Perfusion processes are an emerging alternative to common fed-batch processes in the growing biopharmaceutical industry. However, the challenge of maintaining high cell-specific productivities remains. In this study, glucose limitation was applied to two perfusion steady states and compared to a third steady state without any detectable limitation. The metabolic phenotype was enhanced under glucos...

Rhinoviruses and Their Receptors.

Human rhinoviruses (RV) are picornaviruses that can cause a variety of upper and lower respiratory tract illnesses including the common cold, bronchitis, pneumonia, and exacerbations of chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma. There are currently over 160 known types of RV classified into three species (A, B and C) that use three different cellular membrane glycoproteins expressed in the respi...

Raw Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Variables are Independent predictors of Early All-Cause Mortality in Patients With COPD.

Bioelectrical impedance analysis is a valuable method for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) in COPD patients by means of specific predictive equations. In addition, raw BIA variables such as high to low frequency impedance ratios (IRs) and phase angle, most likely as a result of providing information on muscle quality, have been related to disease severity and mortality in patients ...

Temperature-Adjusted Respiratory Rate for the Prediction of Childhood Pneumonia.

As both fever and pneumonia can be are associated with tachypnea, we investigated the relationship between body temperature and respiratory rate (RR) in young children and whether temperature-adjusted RR enhances the prediction of pneumonia.

Ensifentrine (RPL554): an inhaled 'bifunctional' dual PDE3/4 inhibitor for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Ensifentrine (RPL554), an inhaled 'bifunctional' dual phosphodiesterase 3/4 inhibitor that exhibits both bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory activities, provides a new option in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other inflammatory airway diseases that are under clinical development. Ensifentrine appears to be initially under development for the treatment of COPD a...

Bronchoalveolar lavage hemosiderosis in dogs and cats with respiratory disease.

Hemosiderophages can be found in bronchoalveolar lavage samples and have been reported in association with a wide range of respiratory and cardiovascular disorders in cats and humans.

Outcomes and imaging findings of respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma: a systematic review.

Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma (REAH) is a recently classified histopathologic diagnosis often identified incidentally following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for presumed chronic rhinosinusitis. Limited data exist defining preoperative imaging features and surgical outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine characteristic imaging findings of REAH and postoperative olfactory ...

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