RTS,S AS01 (Malaria Vaccine) Research

23:14 EDT 16th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

HIV and Malaria Infections and Associated Risk Factors Among Febrile Illness Patients in Northwest Ethiopia.

Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are the major medical challenges of priority faced by the sub-Saharan African countries in general and Ethiopia in particular. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of HIV and malaria infections among febrile illness patients.

Recrudescence, reinfection or relapse? A more rigorous framework to assess chloroquine efficacy for vivax malaria.

Plasmodium vivax resistance to chloroquine has been reported worldwide, although the WHO clinical drug efficacy studies protocol does not allow to classify patient outcomes.

Vivax infection alters peripheral B cell profile and induces persistent serum IgM.

B cell-mediated humoral responses are essential for controlling malarial infection. Studies have addressed the effects of Plasmodium falciparum infection on peripheral B cell subsets but not much is known for P. vivax infection. Furthermore, majority of the studies investigate changes during acute infection, but not after parasite clearance. In this prospective study we analyzed peripheral B cell ...

Validation of Babesia proteasome as a drug target.

Babesiosis is a tick-transmitted zoonosis caused by apicomplexan parasites of the genus Babesia. Treatment of this emerging malaria-related disease has relied on antimalarial drugs and antibiotics. The proteasome of Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, has recently been validated as a target for anti-malarial drug development and therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of epoxy...

Exploring parasite heterogeneity using single-cell RNA-seq reveals a gene signature among sexual stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites.

The malaria parasite has a complex lifecycle, including several events of differentiation and stage progression, while actively evading immunity in both its mosquito and human hosts. Important parasite gene expression and regulation during these events remain hidden in rare populations of cells. Here, we combine a capillary-based platform for cell isolation with single-cell RNA-sequencing to trans...

Evaluation of malaria multiplex/nested PCR performance at low parasite densities and mixed infection in Iran: A country close to malaria elimination.

Malaria is still a major public health problem in subtropical and tropical regions. The rapid and accurate diagnosis of malaria remains a challenge in most of the endemic areas. The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the performance of multiplex/nested PCR in detecting Plasmodium falciparum at low parasite densities and mixed infection.

The current malaria morbidity and mortality in different transmission settings in Western Kenya.

Passive surveillance of malaria in health facilities remains vital for implementation of control and elimination programs. It is therefore essential understanding current age profile of clinical malaria morbidity, mortality and presentations in areas with variant infection susceptibility. This study aimed at understanding the current malaria morbidity and mortality in Western Kenya.

Bio-efficacy of LifeNet, a deltamethrin incorporated long-lasting insecticidal net, as assessed in experimental huts against Anopheles fluviatilis, a major malaria vector in east-central India.

LifeNet, a deltamethrin incorporated long-lasting insecticidal (polypropylene) net (LLIN), was qualified by the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) for Phase-II trial in India. The purpose of this trial was to assess the bio-efficacy of unwashed and 20 and 30 times washed LifeNet in comparison to the nets conventionally treated with deltamethrin against the natural popul...

Schistosoma haematobium effects on Plasmodium falciparum infection modified by soil-transmitted helminths in school-age children living in rural areas of Gabon.

Malaria burden remains high in the sub-Saharan region where helminths are prevalent and where children are often infected with both types of parasites. Although the effect of helminths on malaria infection is evident, the impact of these co-infections is not clearly elucidated yet and the scarce findings are conflicting. In this study, we investigated the effect of schistosomiasis, considering soi...

The usefulness of C-reactive protein in predicting malaria parasitemia in a sub-Saharan African region.

Malaria remains a leading cause of childhood mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Identifying patients who are at risk for severe manifestations at presentation still remains challenging. This study examines whether a semi-quantitative test on C-Reactive Protein (CRP) could be useful for rapidly predicting the presence or absence of malarial parasitemia in febrile children.

Importance of household-level risk factors in explaining micro-epidemiology of asymptomatic malaria infections in Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia.

Heterogeneity in malaria risk is considered a challenge for malaria elimination. A cross-sectional study was conducted to describe and explain micro-epidemiological variation in Plasmodium infection prevalence at household and village level in three villages in Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia. A two-level logistic regression model with a random intercept fitted for each household was used to model t...

Mechanisms of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have substantially reduced worldwide malaria burden and deaths. But malaria parasites have become resistant to artemisinins. Prior studies suggested two different molecular pathways of artemisinin-resistance. Here we unify recent findings into a single model, where elevation of a lipid, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) results in vesicle expans...

Decline in malaria incidence in a typical county of China: Role of climate variance and anti-malaria intervention measures.

Malaria is an important vector-borne disease which is widespread in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide as well as in south China. Previous research has separately focused on the association between malaria incidence and meteorological variables or between malaria incidence and anti-malaria intervention measures in China, especially in Yunnan Province. Therefore, a typical county, Tengchong C...

Performance of a highly sensitive rapid diagnostic test (HS-RDT) for detecting malaria in peripheral and placental blood samples from pregnant women in Colombia.

Pregnancy poses specific challenges for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection due to parasite sequestration in the placenta, which translates in low circulation levels in peripheral blood. The aim of this study is to assess the performance of a new highly sensitive rapid diagnostic test (HS-RDT) for the detection of malaria in peripheral and placental blood samples from pregnant women i...

Azole-based non-peptidomimetic plasmepsin inhibitors.

The spread of drug-resistant malaria parasites urges the search for new antimalarial drugs. Malarial aspartic proteases - plasmepsins (Plms) - are differentially expressed in multiple stages of the Plasmodium parasite's lifecycle and are considered as attractive drug targets. We report the development of novel azole-based non-peptidomimetic plasmepsin inhibitors that have been designed by bioisost...

Downstream processing of a plant-derived malaria transmission-blocking vaccine candidate.

Plants as a platform for recombinant protein expression are now economically comparable to well-established systems, such as microbes and mammalian cells, thanks to advantages such as scalability and product safety. However, downstream processing accounts for the majority of the final product costs because plant extracts contain large quantities of host cell proteins (HCPs) that must be removed us...

Whole-blood transcriptional signatures composed of erythropoietic and Nrf2-regulated genes differ between cerebral malaria and severe malarial anemia.

Among the severe malaria syndromes, severe malarial anemia (SMA) is the most common, whereas cerebral malaria (CM) is the most lethal. However, the mechanisms that lead to CM and SMA are unclear.

Malaria risk in travellers: a holistic approach is needed.

A diagnostic performance evaluation of rapid diagnostic tests and microscopy for malaria diagnosis using nested polymerase chain reaction as reference standard in a tertiary hospital in Jos, Nigeria.

Rapid diagnostic tests are frequently used in healthcare settings across Nigeria for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, which is the commonest form of malaria in the country. In this study, the performance of a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) was compared with expert microscopy using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the reference standard in a tertiary hospital in Jos, Nigeria.

Prevention against malaria before the first antenatal visit and absence of anaemia at the first visit were protective from low birth weight: results from a South Kivu cohort, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

There is little information on the causes of low birth weight (LBW,

Expression of full-length Plasmodium falciparum P48/45 in P. berghei blood stages: a method to express and evaluate vaccine antigens.

The transmission-blocking vaccine candidate Pfs48/45 from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is known to be difficult to express in heterologous systems, either as full-length protein or as correctly folded protein fragments that retain conformational epitopes. In this study we express full-length Pfs48/45 in the rodent parasite P. berghei. Pfs48/45 is expressed as a transgene under ...

H NMR-based metabolomics of antimalarial plant species traditionally used by Vha-Venda people in Limpopo Province, South Africa and isolation of antiplasmodial compounds.

The Vha-Venda people living in rural areas of Limpopo Province of South Africa regularly use traditional plant-based medicines to treat malaria. In our earlier publication, twenty indigenous plant species used to treat malaria or its symptoms by Vha-Venda people were evaluated for antiplasmodial activity. The main objective of the current study was to assess the robustness of NMR-based metabolomic...

TCRβ-expressing macrophages induced by a pathogenic murine malaria correlate with parasite burden and enhanced phagocytic activity.

Macrophages express a wide array of invariant receptors that facilitate host defense and mediate pathogenesis during pathogen invasion. We report on a novel population of CD11bhighCD14+F4/80+ macrophages that express TCRβ. This population expands dramatically during a Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection and sequesters in the brain during experimental cerebral malaria. Importantly, measurement of TC...

Generation of Plasmodium yoelii malaria parasite carrying double fluorescence reporters in gametocytes.

Male and female gametocytes are the infectious forms critical for malaria transmission and targets of intervention. Gametocytes are generally produced in relatively small numbers, and it has been difficult to obtain pure male and female gametocytes for various studies. Male and female gametocytes expressing unique fluorescence reporters have been generated for both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmo...

α-Tocopheryl succinate-suppressed development of cerebral malaria in mice.

α-Tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS), a derivative of vitamin E, is synthesized by esterification of α-tocopherol. It has been reported that α-TOS inhibits the mitochondrial complex II resulting in generation of reactive oxygen species, which triggers selective apoptosis in a large number of cancer cells, while it appears largely non-toxic towards normal cells. Plasmodium parasites are well known to...

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