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RTS,S AS01 (Malaria Vaccine) Research

20:18 EST 11th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

Reinvestigating the status of malaria parasite (Plasmodium sp.) in Indian non-human primates.

Many human parasites and pathogens have closely related counterparts among non-human primates. For example, non-human primates harbour several species of malaria causing parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Studies suggest that for a better understanding of the origin and evolution of human malaria parasites it is important to know the diversity and evolutionary relationships of these parasites in n...

Economic cost of malaria at household in high and low transmission areas of central India.

The cost burden of malaria at the household level, resulting from complex social, economic, and epidemiological factors, is enormous. This study was carried out to estimate the economic burden of malaria at the household level in low and high malaria transmission areas of central India. We conducted surveys with households in which at least one member had suffered from malaria in the three months ...

Essentiality of Plasmodium falciparum plasmepsin V.

The malaria parasite replicates within erythrocytes. The pathogenesis of clinical malaria is in large part due to the capacity of the parasite to remodel its host cell. To do this, intraerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum export more than 300 proteins that dramatically alter the morphology of the infected erythrocyte as well as its mechanical and adhesive properties. P. falciparum plasmep...

Nyssorhynchus dunhami: bionomics and natural infection by Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax in the Peruvian Amazon.

BACKGROUND Nyssorhynchus dunhami, a member of the Nuneztovari Complex, has been collected in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru and described as zoophilic. Although to date Ny. dunhami has not been documented to be naturally infected by Plasmodium, it is frequently misidentified as other Oswaldoi subgroup species that are local or regional malaria vectors. OBJECTIVES The current study seeks to verify the ...

Epidemiological surveillance activities for malaria in the colombian-peruvian border diagnostic network.

To describe the activities of the malaria diagnostic network and its quality control in the Colombian-Peruvian border to characterize the functioning of the epidemiological surveillance system.

Knowledge of malaria and long-lasting insecticidal net use practices in two departments of colombia.

To determine the knowledge about malaria and use practice of insecticide-treated mosquito nets in the departments of Antioquia and Chocó in Colombia, 2013.

Impact on the transmission of malaria with different treatment schemes in the peruvian coast and amazon region within the framework of a policy on antimalarial medications, 1994-2017.

At the end of the 90s in Peru, after determining the resistance to antimalarial drugs, a change in antimalarial treatment schemes was decided; this change included the combined therapy for P. falciparum, mefloquine/artesunate in the Amazon region, and sulfadoxine pyrimethamine/artesunate in the North coast. After two decades, and aimed at assessing the impact of these schemes on the malaria endemi...

Antiprotozoal action of synthetic cinnamic acid analogs.

Leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and malaria cause morbidity globally. The drugs currently used for treatment have limitations. Activity of cinnamic acid analogs against Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma cruzi, and Plasmodium falciparum was evaluated in the interest of identifying new antiprotozoal compounds.

Malaria Modeling to Evaluate Treatment for Severe Disease.

Optimal Treatments for Severe Malaria and the Threat Posed by Artemisinin Resistance.

Standard treatment for severe malaria is with artesunate; patient survival in the 24 hours immediately posttreatment is the key objective. Clinical trials use clearance rates of circulating parasites as their clinical outcome, but the pathology of severe malaria is attributed primarily to noncirculating, sequestered, parasites, so there is a disconnect between existing clinical metrics and objecti...

Contribution of Plasmodium immunomics: potential impact for serological testing and surveillance of malaria.

Plasmodium vivax and P. knowlesi account together for a considerable share of the global burden of malaria, along with P. falciparum. However, inaccurate diagnosis and undetectable asymptomatic/submicroscopic malaria infections remain very challenging. Blood-stage antigens involved in either invasion of red blood cells or sequestration/cytoadherence of parasitized erythrocytes have been immunomics...

Inhibition of JNK signaling in the Asian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi extends mosquito longevity and improves resistance to Plasmodium falciparum infection.

Malaria is a global health concern caused by infection with Plasmodium parasites. With rising insecticide and drug resistance, there is a critical need to develop novel control strategies, including strategies to block parasite sporogony in key mosquito vector species. MAPK signaling pathways regulated by extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and the stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs...

Risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum infection in the Kenyan Highlands: a cohort study.

Malaria transmission in African highland areas can be prone to epidemics, with minor fluctuations in temperature or altitude resulting in highly heterogeneous transmission. In the Kenyan Highlands, where malaria prevalence has been increasing, characterising malaria incidence and identifying risk factors for infection is complicated by asymptomatic infection.

Tafenoquine: integrating a new drug for malaria prophylaxis into travel medicine practice.

Diagnostic performance of conventional RDT and ultra-sensitive RDT for malaria diagnosis in febrile outpatients in Tanzania.

A novel ultra-sensitive malaria RDT (us-RDT) has been developed for improved active P.falciparum case detection. The utility of this us-RDT in clinical diagnosis and fever management has not been evaluated to date.

Membrane protein carbonylation of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes under conditions of sickle cell trait and G6PD deficiency.

Deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and sickle cell trait (SCT) are described as the polymorphic disorders prevalent in erythrocytes. Both are considered the result of the selective pressure exerted by Plasmodium parasites over human genome, due to a certain degree of resistance to the clinical symptoms of severe malaria. There exist in both a prooxidant environment that favors ...

Inflammasome activation negatively regulates MyD88-IRF7 type I IFN signaling and anti-malaria immunity.

The inflammasome plays a critical role in inflammation and immune responses against pathogens. However, whether or how inflammasome activation regulates type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling in the context of malaria infection remain unknown. Here we show mice deficient in inflammasome sensors AIM2, NLRP3 or adaptor Caspase-1 produce high levels of IFN-I cytokines and are resistant to lethal Plasmo...

Avian malaria on Madagascar: prevalence, biodiversity and specialization of haemosporidian parasites.

Previous studies about geographic patterns of species diversity of avian malaria parasites and others in the Order Haemosporida did not include the avian biodiversity hotspot Madagascar. Since there are few data available on avian malaria parasites on Madagascar, we conducted the first known large-scale molecular-based study to investigate their biodiversity. Samples (1,067) from 55 bird species w...

Circulating neutrophil extracellular traps and neutrophil activation are increased in proportion to disease severity in human malaria.

Neutrophil activation results in Plasmodium parasite killing in vitro, but neutrophil products including neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) mediate host organ damage and may contribute to severe malaria. The role of NETs in the pathogenesis of severe malaria has not been examined.

Thiazole, thio and semicarbazone derivatives against tropical infective diseases: Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), leishmaniasis, and malaria.

Thiazole, thiosemicarbazone and semicarbazone moieties are privileged scaffolds (acting as primary pharmacophores) in many compounds that are useful to treat several diseases, mainly tropical infectious diseases. In this review article, we critically analyzed the contribution of these scaffolds to medicinal chemistry in the last five years, focusing on tropical infectious diseases, such as Chagas ...

Exploring insecticide resistance mechanisms in three major malaria vectors from Bangui in Central African Republic.

Malaria remains the main cause of mortality and morbidity in the Central African Republic. However, the main malaria vectors remain poorly characterised, preventing the design of suitable control strategies. Here, we characterised the patterns and mechanisms of insecticide resistance in three important vectors from Bangui. Mosquitoes were collected indoors, using electrical aspirators in July 2016...

DIVERSITY AND BITING PATTERNS OF ANOPHELES SPECIES IN A MALARIA ENDEMIC AREA, UMPHANG VALLEY, TAK PROVINCE, WESTERN THAILAND.

Malaria is highly endemic in Umphang Valley, a district in the western edge of Tak Province, along the boundary with Kayin State of Myanmar. Although there are high indigenous malaria cases in this area every year, nothing about malaria vectors and their transmission role have been investigated before this study. The objective of this work is to characterize the Anopheles species diversity and tro...

Infection of anopheline mosquitoes with Wolbachia: Implications for malaria control.

Adaptive plasticity in the gametocyte conversion rate of malaria parasites.

Sexually reproducing parasites, such as malaria parasites, experience a trade-off between the allocation of resources to asexual replication and the production of sexual forms. Allocation by malaria parasites to sexual forms (the conversion rate) is variable but the evolutionary drivers of this plasticity are poorly understood. We use evolutionary theory for life histories to combine a mathematica...

Evidence of Artemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Eastern India.

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