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Skin cancers Research

21:27 EDT 21st August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Identification of Intra- and Extracellular Metabolites in Cancer Cells Using C Hyperpolarized Ultrafast Laplace NMR.

Ultrafast Laplace NMR (UF-LNMR), which is based on the spatial encoding of multidimensional data, enables one to carry out 2D relaxation and diffusion measurements in a single-scan. Besides reducing the experiment time to a fraction, it significantly facilitates the use of nuclear spin hyperpolarization to boost experimental sensitivity, because the time consuming polarization step does not need t...

Isoform level interpretation of high-throughput proteomic data enabled by deep integration with RNA-seq.

Cellular control of gene expression is a complex process that is subject to multiple levels of regulation, but ultimately it is the protein produced that determines the biosynthetic state of the cell. One way that a cell can regulate the protein output from each gene is by expressing alternate isoforms with distinct amino acid sequences. These isoforms may exhibit differences in localization and b...

Repertoires of tRNAs: The Couplers of Genomics and Proteomics.

The pool of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules in cells allows the ribosome to decode genetic information. This repertoire of molecular decoders is positioned in the crossroad of the genome, the transcriptome, and the proteome. Omics and systems biology now allow scientists to explore the entire repertoire of tRNAs of many organisms, revealing basic exciting biology. The tRNA gene set of hundreds of sp...

Kidney Nephron Determination.

The nephron is a multifunctional filtration device equipped with an array of sophisticated sensors. For appropriate physiological function in the human and mouse, nephrons must be stereotypically arrayed in large numbers, and this essential structural property that defines the kidney is determined during its fetal development. This review explores the process of nephron determination in the fetal ...

SCARECROW and SHORTROOT control the auxin/cytokinin balance necessary for embryonic stem cell niche specification.

The root apical meristem is established during embryogenesis, when its organizer, the quiescent center, is specified and the stem cell niche is positioned. The SCARECROW-SHORTROOT heterodimer is essential for quiescent center specification and maintenance. As continuous post-embryonic root growth relies upon the SCARECROW-mediated control of the cytokinin/auxin balance, we investigated the role of...

Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation in the Modulation of Human Diseases.

This review focuses primarily on the beneficial effects for human health of exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). UVR stimulates anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive pathways in skin that modulate psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and vitiligo; suppresses cutaneous lesions of graft-versus-host disease; and regulates some infection and vaccination outcomes. While polymorphic light eruption and th...

Circulating Tumor DNA Measurements As Early Outcome Predictors in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

Purpose Outcomes for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma remain heterogeneous, with existing methods failing to consistently predict treatment failure. We examined the additional prognostic value of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) before and during therapy for predicting patient outcomes. Patients and Methods We studied the dynamics of ctDNA from 217 patients treated at six centers, using a ...

Impact of Baseline Steroids on Efficacy of Programmed Cell Death-1 and Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Blockade in Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Purpose Treatment with programmed cell death-1 or programmed death ligand 1 (PD-(L)1) inhibitors is now standard therapy for patients with lung cancer. The immunosuppressive effect of corticosteroids may reduce efficacy of PD-(L)1 blockade. On-treatment corticosteroids for treatment of immune-related adverse events do not seem to affect efficacy, but the potential impact of baseline corticosteroid...

Efficacy and safety of IdegLira for the intensification of type 2 diabetes treatment.

Diabetes mellitus is a true pandemic; type 2 diabetes in particular, with its progressive nature, constitutes a serious health problem. Despite advances and innovations in treatment, it continues to generate high morbidity and mortality. Many patients do not achieve their metabolic control objectives, due to clinical inertia, fear of hypoglycaemia, weight gain, the complexity of the treatment and ...

Prostate carcinoma and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.

Prostate cancer is an extremely rare cause of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion. These tend to be aggressive tumors and SIADH can carry serious clinical consequences. A 64 years old patient was diagnosed with Gleason 4+3: 7 prostate adenocarcinoma in December 2014 and received hormonal blockade therapy. By March 2015 he was admitted for symptomatic hyponatremia and S...

Integrated analysis of the impact of age on genetic and clinical aspects of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Despite the rapid growing and aging of populations worldwide, our knowledge on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still age-standardized rather than age-specific, with only few studies exploring the topic from a genetic point of view. Here, we analyze clinical and genetic aspects of HCC in patients of different age groups with the major attention directed to children (≤20 y) and elderly groups (...

Lapatinib, a Dual Inhibitor of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and HER-2, Enhances Radiosensitivity in Mouse Bladder Tumor Line-2 (MBT-2) Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lapatinib, a dual inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER-2, on the radiosensitivity of murine bladder tumor line-2 (MBT-2) cells in vitro and in vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS MBT-2 cells were pretreated with lapatinib at doses ranging from 200-1,000 nM for 30 min followed by radiation at doses ranging from 2.5-10 Gy ...

Deep learning is combined with massive-scale citizen science to improve large-scale image classification.

Pattern recognition and classification of images are key challenges throughout the life sciences. We combined two approaches for large-scale classification of fluorescence microscopy images. First, using the publicly available data set from the Cell Atlas of the Human Protein Atlas (HPA), we integrated an image-classification task into a mainstream video game (EVE Online) as a mini-game, named Pro...

A linked organ-on-chip model of the human neurovascular unit reveals the metabolic coupling of endothelial and neuronal cells.

The neurovascular unit (NVU) regulates metabolic homeostasis as well as drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in the central nervous system. Metabolic fluxes and conversions over the NVU rely on interactions between brain microvascular endothelium, perivascular pericytes, astrocytes and neurons, making it difficult to identify the contributions of each cell type. Here we model the human NVU u...

Axonal sodium channel NaV1.2 drives granule cell dendritic GABA release and rapid odor discrimination.

Dendrodendritic synaptic interactions between olfactory bulb mitral and granule cells represent a key neuronal mechanism of odor discrimination. Dendritic release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from granule cells contributes to stimulus-dependent, rapid, and accurate odor discrimination, yet the physiological mechanisms governing this release and its behavioral relevance are unknown. Here, we s...

Antibacterial soap use impacts skin microbial communities in rural Madagascar.

The skin harbors diverse communities of microorganisms, and alterations to these communities can impact the effectiveness of the skin as a barrier to infectious organisms or injury. As the global availability and adoption of antibacterial products increases, it is important to understand how these products affect skin microbial communities of people living in rural areas of developing countries, w...

HAP2/GCS1: Mounting evidence of our true biological EVE?

Sex has consequences-indeed, where would we be without it? Yet for all its importance, remarkably little is known about how sex evolved, why it has persisted, or even what mechanisms allow sperm-egg fusion to occur. Fortunately, answers to these questions are beginning to emerge with studies of hapless 2/generative cell specific1 (HAP2/GCS1), a molecular machine that promotes gamete fusion in orga...

Humoral immune response to adenovirus induce tolerogenic bystander dendritic cells that promote generation of regulatory T cells.

Following repeated encounters with adenoviruses most of us develop robust humoral and cellular immune responses that are thought to act together to combat ongoing and subsequent infections. Yet in spite of robust immune responses, adenoviruses establish subclinical persistent infections that can last for decades. While adenovirus persistence pose minimal risk in B-cell compromised individuals, if ...

Circulating catecholamines are associated with biobehavioral factors and anxiety symptoms in head and neck cancer patients.

Studies have shown that stress-related catecholamines may affect cancer progression. However, little is known about catecholamine secretion profiles in head and neck cancer patients. The present study investigated plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine levels in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients and patients with oral leukoplakia, as well as their association with clinicopathol...

SIVcol Nef counteracts SERINC5 by promoting its proteasomal degradation but does not efficiently enhance HIV-1 replication in human CD4+ T cells and lymphoid tissue.

SERINC5 is a host restriction factor that impairs infectivity of HIV-1 and other primate lentiviruses and is counteracted by the viral accessory protein Nef. However, the importance of SERINC5 antagonism for viral replication and cytopathicity remained unclear. Here, we show that the Nef protein of the highly divergent SIVcol lineage infecting mantled guerezas (Colobus guereza) is a potent antagon...

An EBNA3C-deleted Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) mutant causes B-cell lymphomas with delayed onset in a cord blood-humanized mouse model.

EBV causes human B-cell lymphomas and transforms B cells in vitro. EBNA3C, an EBV protein expressed in latently-infected cells, is required for EBV transformation of B cells in vitro. While EBNA3C undoubtedly plays a key role in allowing EBV to successfully infect B cells, many EBV+ lymphomas do not express this protein, suggesting that cellular mutations and/or signaling pathways may obviate the ...

Conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines for sickle cell disease.

People affected with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at high risk of infection from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Before the implementation of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccination in high-income countries, this was responsible for a high mortality rate in children under five years of age. In African countries, where coverage of this vaccination is still extremely low, Hib remai...

Does Socioeconomic Status Account for Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Childhood Cancer Survival?

For many childhood cancers, survival is lower among non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics in comparison with non-Hispanic whites, and this may be attributed to underlying socioeconomic factors. However, prior childhood cancer survival studies have not formally tested for mediation by socioeconomic status (SES). This study applied mediation methods to quantify the role of SES in racial/ethnic differenc...

Annexin A2 (ANX A2): An Emerging Biomarker and Potential Therapeutic Target for Aggressive Cancers.

ANX A2 is an important member of annexin family of proteins expressed on surface of endothelial cells (ECs), macrophages, mononuclear cells and various types of cancer cells. It exhibits high affinity binding for calcium (Ca ) and phospholipids. ANX A2 plays an important role in many biological processes such as endocytosis, exocytosis, autophagy, cell-cell communications and biochemical activatio...

JMJD6 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma carcinogenesis by targeting CDK4.

Jumonji domain-containing protein 6 (JMJD6), a histone arginine demethylase, plays a multifaceted and significant role in embryonic development and cancer progression. However, the function of JMJD6 and its precise mechanism in regulating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unknown. Here, we show that aberrant JMJD6 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis and aggressive characteristics ...

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