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Stem Cells Research

01:12 EST 10th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

Interleukin-32ε induces caspase-independent apoptosis mediated by N-Myc interactor in macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the pathogen responsible for tuberculosis, a leading cause of illness and death worldwide. Growing evidence suggests that the proinflammatory cytokine IL-32 plays a major role in host defenses against pathogens such as Mtb. IL-32 exists in six alternatively spliced isoforms, but anti-tuberculosis effects have been reported only for some of them. In this study, w...

Direct Imaging of Photo-Switching Molecular Conformations Using Individual Metal Atom Markers.

Photo-switching behavior of individual organic molecules was imaged by annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF-STEM) using a highly electron beam transparent graphene support. Photo-switching azobenzene derivatives with ligands at each ends containing single transition metal atoms (Pt) were designed (Pt-complex), and the distance between the strong ADF-STEM contrast from ...

Aromatic Nitrogen Mustard-Based Autofluorescent Amphiphilic Brush Copolymer as pH-Responsive Drug Delivery Vehicle.

Delivery of clinically approved nonfluorescent drugs is facing challenges because it is difficult to monitor the intracellular drug delivery without incorporating any integrated fluorescence moiety into the drug carrier. The present investigation reports the synthesis of a pH-responsive autofluorescent polymeric nano-scaffold for the administration of nonfluorescent aromatic nitrogen mustard chlor...

Improving the Electrochemical Properties of the Manganese-Based P3 Phase by Multiphasic Intergrowth.

Layered transition-metal oxides are one kind of the most promising cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries. In this study, we propose a strategy to enhance the electrochemical properties of P3-type manganese-based layered oxide cathode by introducing a small amount of layered P2 and Li-O'3 phases. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) structural refinement and aberration-corrected scanning transmissi...

Target engagement and binding mode of an anti-tuberculosis drug to its bacterial target deciphered in whole living cells by NMR.

Detailed information on hit-target interaction is very valuable for drug discovery efforts and indispensable for rational hit to lead optimization. We developed a new approach combining NMR in whole-cells (in-cell NMR) and docking to characterize hit-target interaction at the atomic level. By using in-cell NMR, we validated target engagement of the anti-tuberculosis imidazopyridine amide (IPA) ser...

On the Electrochemical Degradation of Pt-Ni Nanocatalysts: An Identical Location Aberration-Corrected STEM Study.

The evolution of PtNi nanopartiles supported on amorphous carbon is investigated before and after electrochemical potential cycling (0.6-1.1V), using aberration-corrected STEM and EDS. During voltage cycling and due to the dissolution of the nanoparticles, single ions/atoms and ionic/atomic clusters emerge and diffuse across the carbon support towards larger nanoparticles, where they re-deposit. W...

Oligomerization of equilibrative nucleoside transporters: a novel regulatory and functional mechanism involving PKC and PP1.

Equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) translocate nucleosides and nucleobases across plasma membranes, as well as a variety of anti-cancer, -viral, and -parasite nucleoside analogs. They are also key members of the purinome complex and regulate the protective and anti-inflammatory effects of adenosine. Despite their important role, little is known about the mechanisms involved in their regu...

MMP14 empowers tumor-initiating breast cancer cells under hypoxic nutrient-depleted conditions.

Tumor-initiating cells (TICs) existing in breast cancer are thought to be involved in initiation, progression, and relapse of tumors. In these processes, the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and proteases are crucial factors that also dependent on the tumor milieu, including hypoxic nutrient-deprived, as well as normoxic nutrient-rich, environments. Therefore, we investigated EMT and pro...

Roles of CD133 in microvesicle formation and oncoprotein trafficking in colon cancer.

Extracellular vesicles contain various cellular components that are involved in tumor growth, metastasis, and immune escape. Extracellular vesicles are classified into 2 groups, namely, exosomes and microvesicles (MV). Although the formation and roles of exosomes have been studied, the exact functions of MVs and mechanisms underlying MV release are not fully understood. We found that epidermal gro...

Trained murine mesenchymal stem cells have anti-inflammatory effect on macrophages, but defective regulation on T-cell proliferation.

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated immunomodulation affects both innate and adaptive immune systems. These responses to environmental cues, such as pathogen-associated molecular patterns, damage-associated molecular patterns, or proinflammatory cytokines, are crucial for resolution of inflammation, as well as successful tissue healing and regeneration. We observed that intermittent, repeated exp...

Microgravity-induced hepatogenic differentiation of rBMSCs on board the SJ-10 satellite.

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are able to differentiate into functional hepatocytelike cells, which are expected to serve as a potential cell source in regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, and clinical treatment of liver injury. Little is known about whether and how space microgravity is able to direct the hepatogenic differentiation of BMSCs in the actual space microenv...

In vivo monitoring of intracellular Ca dynamics in the pancreatic β-cells of zebrafish embryos.

Assessing the response of pancreatic islet cells to glucose stimulation is important for understanding β-cell function. Zebrafish are a promising model for studies of metabolism in general, including stimulus-secretion coupling in the pancreas. We used transgenic zebrafish embryos expressing a genetically-encoded Ca sensor in pancreatic β-cells to monitor a key step in glucose induced insulin se...

Titin as a force generating muscle protein under regulatory control.

Titin has long been recognized as a mechanical protein in muscle cells that has a main function as a molecular spring in the contractile units, the sarcomeres. Recent work suggests that the titin spring contributes to muscle contraction in a more active manner than previously thought. In this review, we highlight this property, specifically the ability of the immunoglobulin-like (Ig) domains of ti...

ATF2 promotes urothelial cancer outgrowth via cooperation with androgen receptor signaling.

We investigated the functional role of ATF2, a transcription factor normally activated via its phosphorylation in response to phospho-ERK/MAPK signals, in the outgrowth of urothelial cancer. In both neoplastic and non-neoplastic urothelial cells, the expression levels of androgen receptor (AR) correlated with those of phospho-ATF2. Dihydrotestosterone treatment in AR-positive bladder cancer cells ...

Unexplained cytopenias in an adolescent? You GATA think about it.

The GATA family of DNA binding proteins consists of six different transcription factors (GATA1-6), each with a diverse biologic function. The transcription factors GATA1-3 function primarily to orchestrate hematopoiesis; however, they have roles in non-hematopoietic cells as well. Much of our current knowledge of the GATA transcription factors has come through observation of disease states with kn...

Loss of ARHGEF1 causes a human primary antibody deficiency.

ARHGEF1 is a RhoA-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor expressed in hematopoietic cells. We used whole-exome sequencing to identify compound heterozygous mutations in ARHGEF1, resulting in the loss of ARHGEF1 protein expression in two primary-antibody-deficient siblings presenting with recurrent severe respiratory tract infections and bronchiectasis. Both ARHGEF1-deficient patients showed a...

Subdominance and poor intrinsic immunogenicity limit humoral immunity targeting influenza HA-stem.

Both natural influenza infection and current seasonal influenza vaccines primarily induce neutralising antibody responses against highly diverse epitopes within the "head" of the viral hemagglutinin (HA) protein. There is increasing interest on redirecting immunity towards the more conserved HA-stem or stalk as a means to broaden protective antibody responses. Here we examined HA-stem-specific B c...

LINC01118 Modulates Paclitaxel Resistance of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer by Regulating miR-134/ABCC1.

BACKGROUND Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has a high mortality rate and is a common malignant tumor of women, seriously impairing health. Chemoresistance is one of the major causes of poor prognosis. Therefore, analyzing the molecular mechanism of paclitaxel resistance has great significance. MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed aberrantly expressed lncRNAs in chemoresistant EOC cells by microarray a...

Identification of uterine telocytes and their architecture in leiomyoma.

Uterine leiomyoma is the most widespread benign tumor affecting women of childbearing age. ere are still gaps in the understanding of its pathogenesiss. Telocytes are unique cells described in greater than 50 different locations inside the human body. The functional relationship of cells could clarify the pathogenesis of leiomyomata. In the current study, we focused on the identification of telocy...

Function and energy consumption constrain neuronal biophysics in a canonical computation: Coincidence detection.

Neural morphology and membrane properties vary greatly between cell types in the nervous system. The computations and local circuit connectivity that neurons support are thought to be the key factors constraining the cells' biophysical properties. Nevertheless, additional constraints can be expected to further shape neuronal design. Here, we focus on a particularly energy-intense system (as indica...

Polyphenol enriched ethanolic extract of Cajanus scarabaeoides (L.) Thouars exerts potential antifilarial activity by inducing oxidative stress and programmed cell death.

Development of antifilarial drug from the natural sources is considered as one of the most efficacious, safe, and affordable approaches. In this study, we report the antifilarial activity of a leguminous plant Cajanus scarabaeoides (L.) Thouars. The polyphenol-rich ethanolic extract obtained from the stem part of the plant C. scarabaeoides (EECs) was found to be efficient in killing the filarial n...

An efficient proteome-wide strategy for discovery and characterization of cellular nucleotide-protein interactions.

Metabolite-protein interactions define the output of metabolic pathways and regulate many cellular processes. Although diseases are often characterized by distortions in metabolic processes, efficient means to discover and study such interactions directly in cells have been lacking. A stringent implementation of proteome-wide Cellular Thermal Shift Assay (CETSA) was developed and applied to key ce...

Interleukin-6 inhibition of hERG underlies risk for acquired long QT in cardiac and systemic inflammation.

Increased proinflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels are associated with acquired long QT-syndrome (LQTS) in patients with systemic inflammation, leading to higher risks for life-threatening polymorphic ventricular tachycardia such as Torsades de Pointes. However, the functional and molecular mechanisms of this association are not known. In most cases of acquired LQTS, the target ion channel is t...

Gene landscape and correlation between B-cell infiltration and programmed death ligand 1 expression in lung adenocarcinoma patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas data set.

Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are related to positive clinical prognoses in numerous cancer types. Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), a mediator of the PD-1 receptor, plays an inhibitory role in cancer immune responses. PD-L1 upregulation can impede infiltrating T-cell functions in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), a lung cancer subtype. However, associations between the expression of PD-L1 and infiltr...

Global analysis of erythroid cells redox status reveals the involvement of Prdx1 and Prdx2 in the severity of beta thalassemia.

β-thalassemia is a worldwide distributed monogenic red cell disorder, characterized by an absent or reduced beta globin chain synthesis. The unbalance of alpha-gamma chain and the presence of pathological free iron promote severe oxidative damage, playing crucial a role in erythrocyte hemolysis, exacerbating ineffective erythropoiesis and decreasing the lifespan of red blood cells (RBC). Catalase...

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