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Stem Cells Research

11:14 EDT 15th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Adipo-Clear: A Tissue Clearing Method for Three-Dimensional Imaging of Adipose Tissue.

Adipose tissue plays a central role in energy homeostasis and thermoregulation. It is composed of different types of adipocytes, as well as adipocyte precursors, immune cells, fibroblasts, blood vessels, and nerve projections. Although the molecular control of cell type specification and how these cells interact have been increasingly delineated, a more comprehensive understanding of these adipose...

Assessment of the Synaptic Interface of Primary Human T Cells from Peripheral Blood and Lymphoid Tissue.

The current understanding of the dynamics and structural features of T-cell synaptic interfaces has been largely determined through the use of glass-supported planar bilayers and in vitro-derived T-cell clones or lines. How these findings apply to the primary human T cells isolated from blood or lymphoid tissues is not known, partly due to significant difficulties in obtaining a sufficient number ...

Nanoparticle-mediated siRNA Gene-silencing in Adult Zebrafish Heart.

Mammals have a very limited capacity to regenerate the heart after myocardial infarction. On the other hand, the adult zebrafish regenerates its heart after apex resection or cryoinjury, making it an important model organism for heart regeneration study. However, the lack of loss-of-function methods for adult organs has restricted insights into the mechanisms underlying heart regeneration. RNA int...

Targeted delivery of a PD-1-blocking scFv by CAR-T cells enhances anti-tumor efficacy in vivo.

The efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy against poorly responding tumors can be enhanced by administering the cells in combination with immune checkpoint blockade inhibitors. Alternatively, the CAR construct has been engineered to coexpress factors that boost CAR-T cell function in the tumor microenvironment. We modified CAR-T cells to secrete PD-1-blocking single-chain vari...

Semaphorin-3A inhibits multiple myeloma progression in a mouse model.

Previous studies revealed that progression of multiple myeloma (MM) is associated with down regulation of semaphorin-3A (sema3A) expression in bone marrow endothelial cells. We therefore determined if serum sema3A concentrations are correlated with MM progression and if sema3A can affect MM progression. We find that the concentration of sema3A in sera of MM patients is strongly reduced and that th...

Producing proT-cells to promote immunotherapies.

T-lymphocytes are critical mediators of the adaptive immune system and they can be harnessed as therapeutic agents against pathogens and in cancer immunotherapy. T-cells can be isolated and expanded from patients and potentially generated in vitro using clinically relevant systems. An ultimate goal for T-cell immunotherapy is to establish a safe, universal effector cell type capable of transcendin...

Protein encoded in human telomerase RNA is involved in cell protective pathways.

Several studies have described functional peptides encoded in RNA that are considered to be noncoding. Telomerase RNA together with telomerase reverse transcriptase and regulatory proteins make up the telomerase complex, the major component of the telomere length-maintaining machinery. In contrast to protein subunits, telomerase RNA is expressed constitutively in most somatic cells where telomeras...

MIR100 host gene-encoded lncRNAs regulate cell cycle by modulating the interaction between HuR and its target mRNAs.

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate vital biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation and development. A subclass of lncRNAs is synthesized from microRNA (miRNA) host genes (MIRHGs) due to pre-miRNA processing, and are categorized as miRNA-host gene lncRNAs (lnc-miRHGs). Presently, the cellular function of most lnc-miRHGs is not well understood. We demonstrate a miRNA-i...

Loss of hierarchical imprinting regulation at the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome locus in human iPSCs.

The human chr15q11-q13 imprinted cluster is linked to several disorders, including Prader-Willi (PWS) and Angelman (AS) syndromes. Recently, disease modelling approaches based on induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been used to study these syndromes. A concern regarding the use of these cells for imprinted disease modelling is the numerous imprinting defects found in many iPSCs. Here, by r...

A piRNA utilizes HILI and HIWI2 mediated pathway to down-regulate ferritin heavy chain 1 mRNA in human somatic cells.

The piwi interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that specifically bind to the PIWI proteins, a functional requirement. The piRNAs regulate germline development, transposons control, and gene expression. However, piRNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene regulation in human somatic cells is not well understood. We discovered a human piRNA (piR-FTH1) which has a complementary sequence in...

Characterization of proliferative, glial and angiogenic responses after a CoCl -induced injury of photoreceptor cells in the adult zebrafish retina.

The adult zebrafish is considered a useful model for studying mechanisms involved in tissue growth and regeneration. We have characterized cytotoxic damage to the retina of adult zebrafish caused by the injection of cobalt chloride (CoCl ) into the vitreous cavity. The CoCl concentration we used primarily caused injury to photoreceptors. We observed the complete disappearance of cones, followed by...

Triggered Cell-Cell Fusion Assay for Cytoplasmic and Organelle Intermixing Studies.

Different multicellular organisms undergo cell-cell fusion to form functional syncytia that support specialized functions necessary for proper development and survival. For years, monitoring the structural consequences of this process using live-cell imaging has been challenging due to the unpredictable timing of cell fusion events in tissue systems. Here we present a triggered vesicular stomatiti...

Antiviral Therapy for the Treatment of HHV-6-Associated Syndromes after Transplantation.

Epstein et al. point out that proof of a causal relationship between HHV-6 reactivation and septic shock is tenuous in Bonnafous et al. and stated that "no high-quality data support the use of antivirals for HHV-6-associated syndromes". HHV-6 can cause significant disease in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) and solid organ transplant (SOT) patients, which have been successfully treated w...

BMP-2 induces human mononuclear cell chemotaxis and adhesion and modulates monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a cardiovascular risk factor which leads to atherosclerosis, an inflammatory disease characterized by the infiltration of mononuclear cells in the vessel. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 is a cytokine which has been recently shown to be elevated in atherosclerosis and T2DM and to contribute to vascular inflammation. However, the role of BMP-2 in the regulation...

Pediatric primary anaplastic ganglioglioma with malignant neuronal component.

Kaymak-Cihan M, Erdiş E, Bozkurt S, Ünver-Korğalı E. Pediatric primary anaplastic ganglioglioma with malignant neuronal component. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 102-106. Gangliogliomas (GGs) represent approximately 0.4%-1.0% of all brain tumors. Anaplastic gangliogliomas (AGGs) form 5-10% of all GGs. They are a mixed neuronal-glial tumor of central nervous system and composed by two cell lines; neu...

Perfect Complementary in Absorption Spectra with Fullerene, Non-fullerene Acceptors and Medium Bandgap Donor for High Performance Ternary Polymer Solar Cells.

Due to the mismatching between the solar irradiance spectra and the photoactive layer absorption spectra, only a part of sunlight can be utilized, thus fundamentally restricts the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the polymer solar cells (PSCs). Ternary blends PSCs have become an effective approach to extend the absorption spectra and increase the mobility of the charge carriers by additional t...

Targeted Maytansinoid Conjugate Improves Therapeutic Index for Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells.

This study was undertaken to target cell surface receptors other than the ones typically associated with breast cancer {estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)}. It was also launched to use small molecules other than those most widely used for active targeting in general ( e.g. folate and carbonic anhydrase IX ligands). Specifically, ...

Biotin Modified PLGA Nanoparticles with Improved Antiproliferative Activity of 15,16-dihydrotanshinone I in Human Cervical Cancer Cells.

15,16-dihydrotanshinone I (DI), a natural compound isolated from a traditional Asian functional food Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bunge, is known for its anticancer activity. However, the poor solubility of DI limits its desirable anticancer application. Herein, poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) was functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and biotin to form co-polymers PEG-PLGA (PPA) and biotin-PEG...

Identification and Multilineage Potential Research of a Novel Type of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Goose Inguinal Groove.

Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) play a crucial role in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue repair for its own unique features. However, up to date, the isolation and characterizations of multidifferentiation potentials of goose ADSCs are still uncertain. In this study, we successfully isolated ADSCs from goose inguinal groove in vitro for the first time and also att...

Stem Cell Mobilization Is Lifesaving in a Large Animal Preclinical Model of Acute Liver Failure.

Acute liver failure (ALF) affects 2000 Americans each year with no treatment options other than liver transplantation. We showed previously that mobilization of endogenous stem cells is protective against ALF in rodents. The objective of this study was to assess whether stem cell mobilizing drugs are lifesaving in a large animal preclinical model of ALF, to assess readiness for a clinical trial.

HIV persistence in mucosal CD4+ T-cells within the lungs of adults receiving long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy.

The lungs were historically identified as one of the major anatomic sites for HIV replication in the pre-ART era. However, their contribution to HIV persistence in individuals under suppressive ART remains understudied.

Micro-RNA-137 Inhibits Tau Hyperphosphorylation in Alzheimer's Disease and Targets the CACNA1C Gene in Transgenic Mice and Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells.

BACKGROUND Alzheimer's disease (AD) results in cognitive impairment. The calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha-1 C CACNA1C gene encodes an alpha-1 C subunit of L-type calcium channel (LTCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of micro-RNA-137 (miR-137) and the CACNA1C gene in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) double-transgenic AD mice and in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. MATERIAL ...

MicroRNA regulation in blood cells of renal transplanted patients with interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy and antibody-mediated rejection.

Interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IFTA) is associated with reduced allograft survival, whereas antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) is the major cause for renal allograft failure. To identify specific microRNAs and their regulation involved in these processes, total RNA from blood cells of 16 kidney transplanted (KTx) patients with ABMR, stable graft function (SGF) and with T-cell mediated reje...

A new biomarker candidate for spinal muscular atrophy: Identification of a peripheral blood cell population capable of monitoring the level of survival motor neuron protein.

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a severe genetic neuromuscular disorder caused by insufficiency of functional survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Several clinical trials have been conducted with the aim of upregulating the expression of the SMN protein in SMA patients. In order to evaluate the efficiency of these SMN-targeted approaches, it has become necessary to verify SMN protein levels in th...

Salmonella Typhimurium effector SseI inhibits chemotaxis and increases host cell survival by deamidation of heterotrimeric Gi proteins.

Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is one of the most frequent causes of food-borne illness in humans and usually associated with acute self-limiting gastroenteritis. However, in immunocompromised patients, the pathogen can disseminate and lead to severe systemic diseases. S. Typhimurium are facultative intracellular bacteria. For uptake and intracellular life, Salmonella tr...

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