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Stress Research

23:55 EDT 24th May 2018 | BioPortfolio

Alpha-synuclein Aggregates in Labial Salivary Glands of Idiopathic Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder.

To assess whether biopsy of the labial minor salivary glands safely detects phosphorylated alpha-synuclein (pAS) deposits in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (IRBD), a condition that precedes the cardinal manifestations of synuclein disorders associated with Lewy type pathology, namely Parkinson disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).

Neuroplasticity in cholinergic neurons of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus contributes to the development of cocaine addiction.

The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) is a brainstem nucleus that sends cholinergic, glutamatergic, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic projections to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a key brain region associated with reward information processing and reinforcement learning, and thus, with addiction induced by drugs of abuse, including cocaine. Recent studies have revealed that the LDT, ...

Plastic rates of development and the effect of thermal extremes on offspring fitness in a cold-climate viviparous lizard.

Populations at the climatic margins of a species' distribution can be exposed to conditions that cause developmental stress, resulting in developmental abnormalities. Even within the thermal range of normal development, phenotypes often vary with developmental temperature (i.e., thermal phenotypic plasticity). These effects can have significant consequences for organismal fitness and, thus, popula...

Slow Starter Enzymes: Role of Active Site Architecture in the Catalytic Control in the Biosynthesis of Taxadiene by Taxadiene Synthase.

Taxadiene synthase (TXS) catalyzes the formation of the natural product Taxa-4(5),11(12)-diene (henceforth Taxadiene). Taxadiene is the precursor in the formation of Taxol, which is an important natural anti-cancer agent. In the current study, we present a detailed mechanistic view of the biosynthesis of Taxadiene by TXS, using a hybrid quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics potential in conjunctio...

Late-onset stress symptomatology (LOSS) scale - short form: development and validation.

Late-onset stress symptomatology (LOSS) is a phenomenon observed in older combat veterans who experience increased combat-related thoughts, feelings, and reminiscences corresponding with the changes and challenges of aging. Previously, we developed the LOSS Scale to assess LOSS. This paper describes the development and validation of a LOSS Scale short form (LOSS-SF) to screen veterans in various s...

Short-term thermoneutral housing alters glucose metabolism and markers of adipose tissue browning in response to a high fat diet in lean mice.

Systemic insulin resistance and glucose intolerance occur with as little as 3 days of a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice and humans; the mechanisms that initiate acute insulin resistance are unknown. Most laboratories house mice at 22{degree sign}C, which is below their thermoneutral temperature (~30{degree sign}C). Cold stress has been shown to increase white adipose tissue (WAT) browning, alter lipid...

African crocus (Curculigo pilosa) and wonderful kola (Buchholzia coriacea) seeds modulate critical enzymes relevant to erectile dysfunction and oxidative stress.

Background The seeds of African crocus (AC) (Curculigo pilosa) and wonderful kola (WK) (Buchholzia coriacea) are commonly used in folklore medicine in managing erectile dysfunction (ED) without the full understanding of the possible mechanism of actions. This study investigated and compared the effects of aqueous extracts from the seeds of AC and WK on arginase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) acti...

Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic properties of aqueous and methanolic stem bark extracts from Nauclea pobeguinii (Rubiacee) in rats.

Background Nauclea pobeguinii is a plant species found in the centre region of Cameroon. The stem bark of this plant is traditionally used to ease pain and cure inflammation. Method This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of doses 150 and 300 mg/kg of the aqueous and methanolic stem bark extracts from Nauclea pobeguinii on acute pain, acute and chronic inflammation induced by formalin ...

Investigation on surface/subsurface deformation mechanism and mechanical properties of GGG single crystal induced by nanoindentation.

In this paper, nanoindentation tests of GGG single crystal are performed on an Agilent G200 nanoindenter. The surface morphology and subsurface deformation mechanism induced by the nanoindentation are analyzed by a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. The ductile deformation mechanism of GGG single crystal induced by the nanoindentation is a comb...

The importance of manager support for the mental health and well-being of ambulance personnel.

Interventions to enhance mental health and well-being within high risk industries such as the emergency services have typically focused on individual-level factors, though there is increasing interest in the role of organisational-level interventions. The aim of this study was to examine the importance of different aspects of manager support in determining the mental health of ambulance personnel....

High prevalence of syndemic health problems in patients seeking post-exposure prophylaxis for sexual exposures to HIV.

The standard clinical approach to non-occupational HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) focuses on biomedical aspects of the intervention, but may overlook co-occurring or 'syndemic' psychosocial problems that reinforce future vulnerability to HIV. We therefore sought to determine the prevalence of syndemic health problems in a cohort of Ontario nPEP patients, and explored the relationship between...

Costs of cold acclimation on survival and reproductive behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.

Fitness is determined by the ability of an organism to both survive and reproduce; however, the mechanisms that lead to increased survival may not have the same effect on reproductive success. We used nineteen natural Drosophila melanogaster genotypes from the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel to determine if adaptive plasticity following short-term acclimation through rapid cold-hardening (RCH) ...

Protective effect and mechanism of Lactobacillus on cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in rats.

The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects and mechanism of inactivated lactobacillus (ILA) on cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury (CIRI) in rats. In this experiment, 30 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group, IRI groups, and ILA group. A middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion model was prepared. The rats were killed after 24 hours of...

Metabolic syndrome components are associated with oxidative stress in overweight and obese patients.

The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the body mass index (BMI) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) parameters on oxidative and nitrosative stress in overweight and obese subjects.

Extruded upper first molar intrusion: Comparison between unilateral and bilateral miniscrew anchorage.

The aim of his study was to evaluate the stress on tooth and alveolar bone caused by orthodontic intrusion forces in a supraerupted upper molar, by using a three-dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM).

Closing the Gap: Novel Abdominal Wound Closure Techniques.

Traditionally, surgical procedures within the realm of both general and gynecological surgery employ the use of staples and interrupted sutures that run continuously with knot tying or subcuticular sutures to ensure closure of large wound incisions, subcuticular incisions, and fascial repair. However, these methods may not always be cosmetically favorable and, thus, result in an unpleasant outcome...

Post-traumatic stress symptomatology following exposure to perceived traumatic perinatal events within the midwifery profession: The impact of trait emotional intelligence.

To explore factors associated with, and predictors of, post-traumatic stress symptoms in midwives. To explore factors associated with, and potential moderating effects of, trait emotional intelligence. Secondary analysis explored predictors of resilience.

Neopterin/7,8-dihydroneopterin is elevated in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and protects mdx skeletal muscle function.

Macrophage infiltration is a hallmark of dystrophin-deficient muscle. We tested the hypothesis that Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients would have elevated levels of the macrophage synthesized pterins, neopterin and 7,8-dihydroneopterin compared to unaffected age-matched controls. Urinary neopterin/creatinine and 7,8-dihydroneopterin/creatinine were elevated in DMD patients and 7,8-dihydron...

In silico and Wet Bench Interactomics Sheds Light on the Similitudes and Differences between Human ROCO Proteins.

Defining a common and specific functions for homologs of a novel protein family is not a trivial task. In their recent study, Tomkins and colleagues have addressed this challenge for the ROCO protein family by exploring interactomes of its four human members: MASL1, DAPK1, LRRK1 and LRRK2. ROCO proteins are characterized by a Ras-GTPase domain embedded in complex multidomain proteins and a functio...

Ubiquitylation Dynamics of the Clock Cell Proteome and TIMELESS during a Circadian Cycle.

Circadian clocks have evolved as time-measuring molecular devices to help organisms adapt their physiology to daily changes in light and temperature. Transcriptional oscillations account for a large fraction of rhythmic protein abundance. However, cycling of various posttranslational modifications, such as ubiquitylation, also contributes to shape the rhythmic protein landscape. In this study, we ...

Functional Genomic Screening Reveals Core Modulators of Echinocandin Stress Responses in Candida albicans.

Candida albicans is a leading cause of death due to fungal infection. Treatment of systemic candidiasis often relies on echinocandins, which disrupt cell wall synthesis. Resistance is readily acquired via mutations in the drug target gene, FKS1. Both basal tolerance and resistance to echinocandins require cellular stress responses. We performed a systematic analysis of 3,030 C. albicans mutants t...

MYC-induced metabolic stress and tumorigenesis.

The MYC oncogene is commonly altered across human cancers. Distinct from the normal MYC proto-oncogene, which is under tight transcriptional, translational, and post-translational control, deregulated oncogenic MYC drives imbalanced, non-linear amplification of transcription that results in oncogenic 'stress.' The term 'stress' had been a euphemism for our lack of mechanistic understanding, but sy...

Gene expression in cord blood links genetic risk for neurodevelopmental disorders with maternal psychological distress and adverse childhood outcomes.

Prenatal exposure to maternal stress and depression has been identified as a risk factor for adverse behavioral and neurodevelopmental outcomes in early childhood. However, the molecular mechanisms through which maternal psychopathology shapes offspring development remain poorly understood. We applied transcriptome-wide screens to 149 umbilical cord blood samples from neonates born to mothers with...

Effects of potassium application on potato starch physicochemical properties.

Potato starch serves as an excellent raw material or food additive in the food industry. With the advancement of the potato staple food strategy in China, improving the potato starch yield and quality has attracted more and more attention. Potassium is an essential nutrient for potato due to its direct effects on the yield and quality of potato tubers. Here, the effects of three different potassiu...

Boosted nutritional quality of food by CO enrichment fails to offset energy demand of herbivores under ocean warming, causing energy depletion and mortality.

The CO-boosted trophic transfer from primary producers to herbivores has been increasingly discovered at natural CO vents and in laboratory experiments. Despite the emerging knowledge of this boosting effect, we do not know the extent to which it may be enhanced or dampened by ocean warming. We investigated whether ocean acidification and warming enhance the nutritional quality (C:N ratio) and ene...

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