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Stress Research

03:22 EDT 20th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Genome-Wide Association Study of Circadian Rhythmicity in 71,500 UK Biobank Participants and Polygenic Association with Mood Instability.

Circadian rhythms are fundamental to health and are particularly important for mental wellbeing. Disrupted rhythms of rest and activity are recognised as risk factors for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.

Material microenvironmental properties couple to induce distinct transcriptional programs in mammalian stem cells.

Variations in a multitude of material microenvironmental properties have been observed across tissues in vivo, and these have profound effects on cell phenotype. Phenomenological experiments have suggested that certain of these features of the physical microenvironment, such as stiffness, could sensitize cells to other features; meanwhile, mechanistic studies have detailed a number of biophysical ...

Z-FL-COCHO, a cathepsin S inhibitor, enhances oxaliplatin-mediated apoptosis through the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Multiple cancer cells highly express cathepsin S, which has pro-tumoral effects. However, it was previously unknown whether knockdown or a pharmacological inhibitor (ZFL) of cathepsin S acts as an inducer of ER stress. Here, ZFL and knockdown of cathepsin S markedly induced ER stress through the up-regulation of calcium levels in the cytosol. Induction of calcium levels by inhibition of cathepsin ...

Early selection of bZIP73 facilitated adaptation of japonica rice to cold climates.

Cold stress is a major factor limiting production and geographic distribution of rice (Oryza sativa). Although the growth range of japonica subspecies has expanded northward compared to modern wild rice (O. rufipogon), the molecular basis of the adaptation remains unclear. Here we report bZIP73, a bZIP transcription factor-coding gene with only one functional polymorphism (+511 G>A) between the ...

Cell-penetrating artificial mitochondria-targeting peptide-conjugated metallothionein 1A alleviates mitochondrial damage in Parkinson's disease models.

An excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) relative to the antioxidant capacity causes oxidative stress, which plays a role in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Because mitochondria are both sites of ROS generation and targets of ROS damage, the delivery of antioxidants to mitochondria might prevent or alleviate PD. To transduce the antioxidant protein human metallothionein 1A (hMT1A) i...

Emerging many-body effects in semiconductor artificial graphene with low disorder.

The interplay between electron-electron interactions and the honeycomb topology is expected to produce exotic quantum phenomena and find applications in advanced devices. Semiconductor-based artificial graphene (AG) is an ideal system for these studies that combines high-mobility electron gases with AG topology. However, to date, low-disorder conditions that reveal the interplay of electron-electr...

Transcriptional insights into the pyramided resistance to rice bacterial blight.

The pyramiding of resistance (R) genes provides broad-spectrum and durable resistance to plant diseases. However, the genetic basis for bacterial blight (BB) resistance remains unclear. The BB R gene pyramided line IRBB54, which expresses xa5 and Xa21, possessed a higher level of resistance than both single R gene lines. Large-scale genotyping of genetic markers in this study revealed similar gene...

Phospholipidome of endothelial cells shows a different adaptation response upon oxidative, glycative and lipoxidative stress.

Endothelial dysfunction has been widely associated with oxidative stress, glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity and underlies the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), atherosclerosis and diabetes. In such pathological conditions, lipids are emerging as mediators of signalling pathways evoking key cellular responses as expression of proinflammatory genes, proliferation and apoptosis. Hence, the ...

Augmentation of leaf color parameters, pigments, vitamins, phenolic acids, flavonoids and antioxidant activity in selected Amaranthus tricolor under salinity stress.

Amaranthus tricolor genotype VA13 was evaluated under four salinity stress in terms of color parameters, leaf pigments, β-carotene, vitamin C, TPC, TFC, TAC, phenolic acids and flavonoids. Salinity stress significantly increases all the studied traits. The increments of all these compounds were high under moderate and severe salinity stress compared to control condition. In this study, trans-cinn...

Analyses of the three 1-Cys Peroxiredoxins from Aspergillus fumigatus reveal that cytosolic Prx1 is central to HO metabolism and virulence.

Standing among the front defense strategies against pathogens, host phagocytic cells release various oxidants. Therefore, pathogens have to cope with stressful conditions at the site of infection. Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are highly reactive and abundant peroxidases that can support virulence and persistence of pathogens in distinct hosts. Here, we revealed that the opportunistic human pathogen A. fum...

Effect of probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1 on the relationship between gut microbiota profile and stress sensitivity in maternally separated rats.

Although gut microbiota and early life events are likely involved in the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), it remains unclear how these factors interact in the pathophysiology of IBS. In the present study, using rats subjected to maternal separation (MS) as a model of IBS, we investigated interrelationships among gut microbiota, stress susceptibility and intestinal permeability, and e...

Ectopic expression of mutated type 2C protein phosphatase OsABI-LIKE2 decreases abscisic acid sensitivity in Arabidopsis and rice.

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone that is necessary for stress adaptation. Recent studies have reported that attenuated levels of ABA improved grain yield and seedling growth under low temperature in cereals. To improve plant growth under low temperature, we attempted to generate ABA-insensitive transgenic rice by expressing a clade A type 2C protein phosphatase (OsPP2C), OsABIL2, with or with...

Accelerated triacylglycerol production without growth inhibition by overexpression of a glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase in the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

Microalgae accumulate triacylglycerols (TAGs), a promising feedstock for biodiesel production, under unfavorable environmental or stress conditions for their growth. Our previous analyses revealed that only transcripts of CmGPAT1 and CmGPAT2, both encoding glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, were increased among fatty acid and TAG synthesis genes under TAG accumulation conditions in the red alga...

ykkC riboswitches employ an add-on helix to adjust specificity for polyanionic ligands.

The ykkC family of bacterial riboswitches combines several widespread classes that have similar secondary structures and consensus motifs but control different genes in response to different cellular metabolites. Here we report the crystal structures of two distinct ykkC riboswitches specifically bound to their cognate ligand ppGpp, a second messenger involved in stress response, or PRPP, a precur...

Post-operative AICS status in completely resected lung cancer patients with pre-operative AICS abnormalities: predictive significance of disease recurrence.

The AminoIndex Cancer Screening (AICS) system, a plasma-free amino acid (PFAA)-based multivariate discrimination index, is a blood screening test for lung cancer based on the comparison of PFAA concentrations between patients with lung cancer and healthy controls. Pre- and post-operative AICS values were compared among 72 patients who underwent curative resection for lung cancer. Post-operative ch...

Development of an oxidative stress in vitro assay in zebrafish (Danio rerio) cell lines.

The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key regulator of cellular defense against oxidative stress and correlated with classical toxicological endpoints. In vitro methods using fish cell lines for the assessment of aquatic toxicity are needed for mechanistic studies and as an alternative to in vivo. We describe an in vitro assay to study oxidative stress using zebrafish cell li...

Physicians' experiences, attitudes and challenges in a Pediatric Telemedicine Service.

Telemedicine in general, and telephone triage, in particular, is considered a high-stress clinical activity and involves decision making under conditions of uncertainty and urgency.

Dendritic remodeling of D1 neurons by RhoA/Rho-kinase mediates depression-like behavior.

Depression alters the structure and function of brain reward circuitry. Preclinical evidence suggests that medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) undergo structural plasticity; however, the molecular mechanism and behavioral significance is poorly understood. Here we report that atrophy of D1, but not D2 receptor containing MSNs is strongly associated with social avoidance in m...

Protective effects of elevated anandamide on stress and fear-related behaviors: translational evidence from humans and mice.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common, debilitating condition with limited treatment options. Extinction of fear memories through prolonged exposure therapy, the primary evidence-based behavioral treatment for PTSD, has only partial efficacy. In mice, pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) produces elevated levels of anandamide (AEA) and promotes fear extinctio...

Acquisition of Verb Meaning From Syntactic Distribution in Preschoolers With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Our goal was to investigate whether preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can begin to learn new word meanings by attending to the linguistic contexts in which they occur, even in the absence of visual or social context. We focused on verbs because of their importance for subsequent language development.

Traumatic Brain Injury and Risk of Suicide.

Association Between Traumatic Brain Injury and Risk of Suicide.

Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) can have serious long-term consequences, including psychiatric disorders. However, few studies have assessed the association between TBI and risk of suicide.

3'untranslated regions: regulation at the end of the road.

Post-transcriptional gene regulation in bacteria plays a major role in the adaptation of bacterial cells to the changing conditions encountered in the environment. In bacteria, most of the regulation at the level of mRNA seems to be targeting the 5'untranslated regions where accessibility to the ribosome-binding site can be modulated to alter gene expression. In recent years, the role of 3'untrans...

Levansucrase from Halomonas smyrnensis AAD6: first halophilic GH-J clan enzyme recombinantly expressed, purified, and characterized.

Fructans, homopolymers of fructose produced by fructosyltransferases (FTs), are emerging as intriguing components in halophiles since they are thought to be associated with osmotic stress tolerance and overall fitness of microorganisms and plants under high-salinity conditions. Here, we report on the full characterization of the first halophilic FT, a levansucrase from Halomonas smyrnensis AAD6 (H...

Catalase and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Obesity and insulin resistance are considered the main causes of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and oxidative stress accelerates the progression of NAFLD. Free fatty acids, which are elevated in the liver by obesity or insulin resistance, lead to incomplete oxidation in the mitochondria, peroxisomes, and microsomes, leading to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Among the R...

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