Swine Flu - H1N1 influenza - H7N9 Research

14:55 EST 14th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

Urbanization affects peak timing, prevalence, and bimodality of influenza pandemics in Australia: Results of a census-calibrated model.

We examine salient trends of influenza pandemics in Australia, a rapidly urbanizing nation. To do so, we implement state-of-the-art influenza transmission and progression models within a large-scale stochastic computer simulation, generated using comprehensive Australian census datasets from 2006, 2011, and 2016. Our results offer a simulation-based investigation of a population's sensitivity to p...

Closure of live bird markets leads to the spread of H7N9 influenza in China.

Following the emergence of H7N9 influenza in March 2013, local animal and public health authorities in China have been closing live bird markets as a measure to try to control the H7N9 influenza epidemic. The role of live bird market (LBM) closure on the spread of N7N9 influenza following the closure of LBMs during March to May 2013 (the first wave) and October 2013 to March 2014 (the second wave)...

Molecular point-of-care testing for influenza to improve early neuraminidase inhibitor treatment and outcomes in hospitalised adults.

Household transmission of seasonal influenza from HIV-infected and -uninfected individuals in South Africa, 2013-2014.

Differential transmission from HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected individuals may impact influenza burden. We estimated the household secondary infection risk (SIR) and serial interval (SI) for influenza transmission from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected index cases and identified associated factors.

Understanding barriers to effective management of influenza outbreaks by residential aged care facilities.

To identify the perceived barriers to the implementation of the Australian national guidelines on influenza outbreak management with Sydney Local Health District (SLHD) residential aged care facility (RACF) staff.

Seasonal Viral Influenza Among Persons with Primary Antibody Immunodeficiency.

Subdominance and poor intrinsic immunogenicity limit humoral immunity targeting influenza HA-stem.

Both natural influenza infection and current seasonal influenza vaccines primarily induce neutralising antibody responses against highly diverse epitopes within the "head" of the viral hemagglutinin (HA) protein. There is increasing interest on redirecting immunity towards the more conserved HA-stem or stalk as a means to broaden protective antibody responses. Here we examined HA-stem-specific B c...

Public Health Response to an Avian Influenza A(H7N8) Virus Outbreak in Commercial Turkey Flocks - Indiana, 2016.

In January 2016, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H7N8) virus and low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) A(H7N8) virus were detected in commercial turkey flocks in Dubois County, Indiana. The Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH) and the Dubois County Health Department (DCHD) coordinated the public health response to this outbreak, which was the first detection of HPAI A(H7N8) in a...

Uterine contractility changes in a perfused swine uterus model induced by local anesthetics procaine, lidocaine, and ropivacaine.

Local anesthetics (LAs) are increasingly used as therapeutics due to their multiple molecular effects. They may be potential agents also in gynecology and reproductive medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the contractility response of the perfused swine uterus to different concentrations of the LAs procaine, lidocaine, and ropivacaine.

Effectiveness of influenza and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines against influenza-related outcomes including pneumonia and acute exacerbation of cardiopulmonary diseases: Analysis by dominant viral subtype and vaccine matching.

Influenza and pneumonia are leading causes of morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Although vaccination is a main strategy to prevent these infectious diseases, concerns remain with respect to vaccine effectiveness.

Fluorescence polarization assay: Diagnostic evaluation for porcine brucellosis.

Brucellosis in pigs, caused by the bacterium Brucella suis, is an important zoonotic infection. In the present study, fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) was standardized and compared with indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) and competitive ELISA (cELISA) for diagnosis of porcine brucellosis. Test performances were evaluated using representative panel (n = 100), samples from ...

The Potential of LAIV for the Prevention of Influenza in Children.

Effect of Temperature and Tissue Type on the Development of Myiasis Causing Fly; Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve is the major human myiasis producer in tropical countries, including Sri Lanka. Although of great medical and veterinary importance, only a single study has been published on the development of C. bezziana. This limitation is due in part to the difficulty of maintaining this species in a colony outside of using a living host. In this study, a novel technique that over...

Vitamin A Supplementation during Pregnancy Enhances Pandemic H1N1 Vaccine Response in Mothers, but Enhancement of Transplacental Antibody Transfer May Depend on When Mothers Are Vaccinated during Pregnancy.

In the growing embryo, the vitamin A requirement is tightly regulated. Maternal vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy may alter maternal immune function to accommodate the fetus.

Colorimetric detection of the β-agonist ractopamine in animal feed, tissue and urine samples using gold-silver alloy nanoparticles modified with sulfanilic acid.

A highly sensitive, selective and simple method was proposed for colorimetric detection of ractopamine on the basis of the interaction between ractopamine and sulfanilic acid-modified gold-silver alloy nanoparticles (AuAgNPs). The AuAgNPs were prepared by the reduction of HAuCl and AgNO with sodium citrate in aqueous medium and further modified by sulfanilic acid. The interaction of ractopamine wi...

Influence of biochar on physico-chemical and microbial community during swine manure composting process.

Excessive nutrients and toxic gas emissions from animal manure management are of great global concern, with negative environmental and economic consequences worldwide. Due to biochar recalcitrance and sorption properties, this study investigated the effect of the biochar(BC) derived from bamboo, amendment on swine manure(SM) composting efficiency through physical, physio-chemical, gaseous emission...

The genetic divergences of codon usage shed new lights on transmission of hepatitis E virus from swine to human.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important pathogen causing public health burden. Swine has been recognized as a main reservoir. Interestingly, genotype 1 HEV only infects human; whereas genotype 3 and 4 are zoonotic. However, there is a lack of in-depth understanding in respect to the transmission from swine to human. Codon usage patterns generally participate in viral survival and fitness towards i...

Reply letter about: factors associated with poor adherence to vaccination against hepatitis viruses, streptococcus pneumoniae and seasonal influenza in HIV-infected adults.

The first analytic evidence for socio-economic gradients in 1918 pandemic influenza mortality rates for New Zealand.

Fluid administration rate for uncontrolled intraabdominal hemorrhage in swine.

We hypothesized that slow crystalloid resuscitation would result in less blood loss and a smaller hemoglobin decrease compared to a rapid resuscitation during uncontrolled hemorrhage.

Specificity and functional interplay between influenza virus PA-X and NS1 shutoff activity.

Influenza A viruses modulate host antiviral responses to promote viral growth and pathogenicity. Through viral PA-X and NS1 proteins, the virus is capable of suppressing host protein synthesis, termed "host shutoff." Although both proteins are known to induce general shutoff, specificity of target genes and their functional interplay in mediating host shutoff are not fully elucidated. In this stud...

Diminished B-cell response after repeat influenza vaccination.

Annual vaccination with influenza vaccines is recommended for protection against influenza in the United States. Past clinical studies and meta-analysis, however, have reported conflicting results on the benefits of annual vaccination. B-cell responses elicited following repeat influenza vaccinations over multiple seasons have not been examined in detail. We analyzed the B-cell and antibody respon...

Broadly protective influenza vaccines: design and production platforms.

Effective vaccines are the cornerstone of our defenses against acute influenza virus infections that result in ∼500 000 annual deaths worldwide. For decades, an on-going concerted effort has been to develop a universal influenza vaccine to combat the looming threat of potentially pandemic emerging and re-emerging influenza viruses. To address the need for rapid efficacious vaccines that could ...

The effect of pre-existing immunity on virus detection and immune responses in a phase II randomized trial of a Russian-backbone live attenuated influenza vaccine in Bangladeshi children.

In a 2012 phase II clinical trial (NCT01625689), 300 Bangladeshi children aged 24 to 59 months with no prior influenza vaccine exposure were randomized to receive a single dose of intra-nasally administered trivalent Russian-backbone live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) or placebo. Protocol-defined analyses, presented in the companion manuscript, demonstrate decreased viral detection and immun...

Influenza virus and factors that are associated with ICU admission, pulmonary co-infections and ICU mortality.

While most influenza patients have a self-limited respiratory illness, 5-10% of hospitalized patients develop severe disease requiring ICU admission. The aim of this study was to identify influenza-specific factors associated with ICU admission and mortality. Furthermore, influenza-specific pulmonary bacterial, fungal and viral co-infections were investigated.

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