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Swine Flu - H1N1 influenza - H7N9 Research

21:30 EDT 22nd October 2018 | BioPortfolio

Communicating and enhancing teachers' attitudes and understanding of influenza using refutational text.

Influenza is an important public health issue and schools play an important part in preventing influenza outbreaks. However, little is known about teachers' knowledge and attitudes toward influenza and vaccination. The purposes of this project were to assess preservice and early career teachers' knowledge and attitudes of influenza, evaluate the effectiveness of a refutational text on increasing t...

Evaluation of ammonia recovery from swine wastewater via a innovative spraying technology.

An innovative spraying system for NH-N removal and recovery was investigated under different pH, temperature, spraying frequency and rate by using spraying system. Results showed that NH-N removal efficiency and mass transfer coefficient (K) value in swine wastewater (SW) remarkably increased with increasing of temperature, spraying frequency and rate due to promoting the diffusion of NH molecules...

Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 Clade 2.3.4.4B virus in Uganda, 2017.

In early January 2017, outbreaks of H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) were reported for the first time in wild and domestic birds along the shores and on some islands of Lake Victoria, in central-southern Uganda. Our whole-genome phylogenetic analyses revealed that the H5N8 viruses recovered from the outbreak in Uganda belonged to genetic clade 2.3.4.4 group-B and clustered with viruse...

A Mechanism for the Activation of the Influenza Virus Transcriptase.

Identification of structural glycoprotein E2 domain critical to mediate replication of Classical Swine Fever Virus in SK6 cells.

Envelope glycoprotein E2 of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) is involved in several critical virus functions. To analyze the role of E2 in virus replication, a series of recombinant CSFVs harboring chimeric forms of E2 CSFV and Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were created and tested for their ability to infect swine or bovine cell lines. Substitution of native CSFV E2 by BVDV E2 abrogates vir...

STAT2 Signaling Regulates Macrophage Phenotype During Influenza and Bacterial Super-Infection.

Influenza is a common respiratory virus that infects between 5 and 20% of the US population and results in 30,000 deaths annually. A primary cause of influenza-associated death is secondary bacterial pneumonia. We have previously shown that influenza induces type I interferon (IFN)-mediated inhibition of Type 17 immune responses, resulting in exacerbation of bacterial burden during influenza and ...

Colonization Limits Efficacy, but Not Immunogenicity, of Live-Attenuated Influenza Virus Vaccine and Enhances Pathogenesis After Influenza Challenge.

Intranasally administered live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines provide significant protection against heterologous influenza A virus (IAV) challenge. However, LAIV administration can modify the bacterial microbiota in the upper respiratory tract, including alterations in species that cause pneumonia. We sought to evaluate the effect of colonization on LAIV immunogenicity and efficacy i...

Innate Immunity Induces the Accumulation of Lung Mast Cells During Influenza Infection.

Mast cells release disease-causing mediators and accumulate in the lung of asthmatics. The most common cause of exacerbations of asthma is respiratory virus infections such as influenza. Recently, we demonstrated that influenza infection in mice triggers the recruitment of mast cell progenitors to the lung. This process starts early after infection and leads to the accumulation of mast cells. Prev...

Aflatoxin B Promotes Influenza Replication and Increases Virus Related Lung Damage via Activation of TLR4 Signaling.

Aflatoxin B (AFB), which alters immune responses to mammals, is one of the most common mycotoxins in feeds and food. Swine influenza virus (SIV) is a major pathogen of both animals and humans. However, there have been few studies about the relationship between AFB exposure and SIV replication. Here, for the first time, we investigated the involvement of AFB in SIV replication and and explored th...

Preparedness for rapid veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation introduction for pediatric severe acute respiratory distress syndrome: a case report.

Previous research has suggested that venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vvECMO) is useful for patients refractory to conventional therapy. We report a pediatric case of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection with a good outcome following rapid initiation of vvECMO.This patient was a 13-year-old boy with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome due to influenza virus. Severe acute respirat...

Diversity and distribution of bacteria in a multistage surface flow constructed wetland to treat swine wastewater in sediments.

Managing waste produced from swine farming operations is a significant agricultural and environmental challenge. Confined animal feeding operations continually generate large amounts of animal waste, which necessitates adequate waste management systems. This study examines the use of multistage surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) to treat pig farm sewage. The wastewater removal rate, sedimen...

Excess influenza hospital admissions and costs due to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in England.

Influenza pandemics considerably burden affected health systems due to surges in inpatient admissions and associated costs. Previous studies underestimate or overestimate 2009/2010 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic hospital admissions and costs. We robustly estimate overall and age-specific weekly H1N1 admissions and costs between June 2009 and March 2011 across 170 English hospitals. We calculate H1N1 ad...

A Dynamic Model for Evaluation of the Bias of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Estimates from Observational Studies.

As influenza vaccination is now widely recommended in the United States, observational studies based on patients with acute respiratory illness (ARI) remain the only option to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). We developed a dynamic probability model to evaluate bias of VE estimates from passive surveillance cohort, test-negative, and traditional case-control studies. The model includ...

Determinants of non-vaccination against seasonal influenza.

In Canada, vaccine coverage for seasonal influenza remains below targets. Few studies have sought to determine the sociodemographic factors associated with non-vaccination using a Canada-wide survey. This study aims to identify the determinants of, and the reasons for, non-vaccination.

Incidence rates of narcolepsy diagnoses in Taiwan, Canada, and Europe: The use of statistical simulation to evaluate methods for the rapid assessment of potential safety issues on a population level in the SOMNIA study.

Vaccine safety signals require investigation, which may be done rapidly at the population level using ecological studies, before embarking on hypothesis-testing studies. Incidence rates were used to assess a signal of narcolepsy following AS03-adjuvanted monovalent pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza vaccination among children and adolescents in Sweden and Finland in 2010. We explored the utility of e...

Anamnestic Immune Response and Safety of an Inactivated Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine in Primed Versus Vaccine-Naïve Children.

It has not yet been demonstrated whether two doses of inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (IIV4) prime a booster response in infants. We evaluated the anamnestic immune response to an IIV4 in children aged 17-48 months.

A novel framework for inferring parameters of transmission from viral sequence data.

Transmission between hosts is a critical part of the viral lifecycle. Recent studies of viral transmission have used genome sequence data to evaluate the number of particles transmitted between hosts, and the role of selection as it operates during the transmission process. However, the interpretation of sequence data describing transmission events is a challenging task. We here present a novel an...

Selective beta-blocker esmolol improves cerebral cortex microcirculation in a swine ventricular fibrillation model.

This study aimed to identify whether esmolol attenuates cerebral cortex microcirculation blood flow due to epinephrine in prolonged ventricular fibrillation (VF) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and may improve neurological prognosis.

Infection, modulation and responses of antigen-presenting cells to African swine fever viruses.

African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating viral disease of domestic pigs and wild boar for which there is no vaccine available. The aetiological agent ASF virus (ASFV) has a predilection for cells of the myeloid lineage. Macrophages provide a first line defence against pathogens and are the main target of ASFV, thus several studies analysed their response to infection in terms of cytokine/chemoki...

IL-33 drives influenza-induced asthma exacerbations by halting innate and adaptive anti-viral immunity.

Influenza virus triggers severe exacerbations of asthma for which no adequate treatment is available. It is known that IL-33 levels correlate with exacerbation severity, but its role in the immune-pathogenesis of exacerbations has remained elusive.

In vitro characterization of baloxavir acid, a first-in-class cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor of the influenza virus polymerase PA subunit.

Cap-dependent endonuclease (CEN) resides in the PA subunit of the influenza virus and mediates the critical "cap-snatching" step of viral RNA transcription, which is considered to be a promising anti-influenza target. Here, we describe in vitro characterization of a novel CEN inhibitor, baloxavir acid (BXA), the active form of baloxavir marboxil (BXM). BXA inhibits viral RNA transcription via sele...

Influenza Vaccination Rates in Adults with Psoriasis Compared to Adults with Other Chronic Diseases.

Clinical management and viral genomic diversity analysis of a child's influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection in the context of a severe combined immunodeficiency.

A child with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) had an influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection with viral excretion longer than 6 months, during 2013-2014 influenza season, despite cord blood transplantation and antiviral treatments.

Significance of the detection of Influenza and other respiratory viruses for Antibiotic Stewardship: The lessons from post-pandemic period.

We aimed to describe the factors associated with antibiotic use in upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in post-pandemic influenza period.

Role of c-Jun terminal kinase (JNK) activation in influenza A virus-induced autophagy and replication.

The non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of different influenza A virus (IAV) strains can differentially regulate the activity of c-Jun terminal kinase (JNK) and PI-3 kinase (PI3K). Whether varying JNK and PI3K activation impacts autophagy and IAV replication differently remains uncertain. Here we report that H5N1 (A/mallard/Huadong/S/2005) influenza A virus induced functional autophagy, as evidenced by...

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