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Swine Flu - H1N1 influenza - H7N9 Research

21:12 EDT 17th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

How much does direct transmission between pigs contribute to Japanese Encephalitis virus circulation? A modelling approach in Cambodia.

Japanese Encephalitis (JE) is the most important cause of human encephalitis throughout Asia and the Pacific. Although JE is a vector-borne disease, it has been demonstrated experimentally that transmission between pigs can occur through direct contact. Whether pig-to-pig transmission plays a role in the natural epidemiological cycle of JE remains unknown. To assess whether direct transmission bet...

Characterising seasonal influenza epidemiology using primary care surveillance data.

Understanding the epidemiology of seasonal influenza is critical for healthcare resource allocation and early detection of anomalous seasons. It can be challenging to obtain high-quality data of influenza cases specifically, as clinical presentations with influenza-like symptoms may instead be cases of one of a number of alternate respiratory viruses. We use a new dataset of confirmed influenza vi...

Digital Ischemia in a Patient with Recent Influenza A Infection.

Assessing the severity of influenza: a role for longitudinal telephone surveys?

During the 2009 influenza pandemic, a rapid assessment of disease severity was a challenge as a significant proportion of cases did not seek medical care; care-seeking behaviour changed and the proportion asymptomatic was unknown. A random-digit-dialling telephone survey was undertaken during the 2011/12 winter season in England and Wales to address the feasibility of answering these questions. A ...

Impact of Cigarette Smoke Exposure on Lung Fibroblastic Response after Influenza Pneumonia.

Influenza viruses can result in significant lung injury with significant morbidity and mortality. In this study, we evaluated the impact of cigarette smoke (CS) exposure on the pulmonary fibroblastic response after influenza infection. We employed a murine model in which animals were exposed to cigarette smoke or room air and subsequently infected with H1N1 influenza virus. Inflammatory and fibrot...

In vitro effect of Porphyromonas gingivalis combined with influenza A virus on respiratory epithelial cells.

Respiratory epithelial cells are the first natural barrier against bacteria and viruses; hence, the interactions among epithelial cells, bacteria, and viruses are associated with disease occurrence and development. The effect of co-infection by P. gingivalis and influenza A virus (IAV) on respiratory epithelial cells remains unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro cell viability and...

Readiness for Responding to a Severe Pandemic 100 Years After 1918.

The 1918 H1N1 pandemic caused unprecedented mortality worldwide. The tools to deal with the global emergency were limited with insufficient surveillance systems and a dearth of diagnostic, treatment, and prevention options. With continuing focus on pandemic planning, technologic advances in surveillance, vaccine capabilities, and 21st century medical care and countermeasures, we are more prepared ...

Emergence of African Swine Fever in China, 2018.

African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious disease manifesting clinical symptoms of hemorrhagic fever caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV) and leads to almost 100% mortality in domestic pigs (Galindo and Alonso, 2017, Quembo et al., 2018). Since ASF was first identified in Kenya in the 1920s, it has rapidly spread in Africa and Eurasia and presented as 24 genotypes (Galindo and Alonso...

A small-molecule compound has anti-influenza A virus activity by acting as a ''PB2 inhibitor".

With regular influenza epidemics and the emergence of drug-resistant virus strains, it is extremely crucial to develop effective and low-toxicity anti-influenza A virus drugs that act on conserved sites of novel targets. Here, we identified a novel anti-influenza compound, 1,3-dihydroxy-6-benzo [c] chromene (D715-2441), from a library of 8,026 small molecule compounds using cell-based influenza A ...

Insertion-responsive microneedles for rapid intradermal delivery of canine influenza vaccine.

In this study, we present transcutaneous influenza vaccination using a novel tip-separable microneedle system called insertion-responsive microneedles (IRMNs). IRMNs are composed of dissolvable hyaluronic acid (HA) tips and biocompatible polycaprolactone (PCL) bases, the tip of which is instantly separated from the base during microneedle insertion and retraction. Vaccine antigens derived from can...

Transmissibility and severity of influenza virus by subtype.

The characteristics of influenza might vary depending on the disease subtype. This review includes previous studies on the transmissibility and severity of influenza and summarizes them by subtype. The attack rate and incubation period of influenza A were 2.3-12.3% and 1.4 days, respectively, and those of influenza B were 0.6-5.5% and 0.6 days, respectively. The five subtypes of influenza A vi...

History of matrix genes mutations within PCR target regions among circulating influenza H3N2 clades over ten-plus-years.

Emerging influenza A/H3N2 clades have been associated with M1 gene mutations which affect the performance of commercial PCR assays.

Fully automated and integrated multiplex detection of high consequence livestock viral genomes on a microfluidic platform.

Differential diagnosis of diseases that share common clinical signs typically requires the performance of multiple independent diagnostic tests to confirm diagnosis. Diagnostic tests that can detect and discriminate between multiple differential pathogens in a single reaction may expedite, reduce costs and streamline the diagnostic testing workflow. Livestock hemorrhagic diseases like classical sw...

Single- and Multiple-dose Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Pimodivir, a Novel, Non-Nucleoside Polymerase Basic Protein 2 Subunit Inhibitor of the Influenza A Virus Polymerase Complex, and Interaction With Oseltamivir: A Phase 1 Open-Label Study in Healthy Volunteers.

Evaluate the drug-drug interaction between pimodivir, a novel, non-nucleoside polymerase basic protein 2 (PB2) subunit inhibitor of the influenza A virus polymerase complex, and oseltamivir, to assess the feasibility of this combination therapy. Furthermore, single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and safety of pimodivir in healthy volunteers were assessed.

Influenza A virus inhibits influenza virus replication by inducing IL-37.

The influenza virus is one of the major pathogens that seriously affect human health. It can cause a strong immune response and trigger a series of complications. Interleukin 37 (IL-37) is a newly discovered cytokine that plays an important regulatory role in infection and immunity. To date, there have been few studies on the correlation between influenza virus infection and IL-37.

CXCR4 Antagonist Reduced the Incidence of Acute Rejection and Controlled Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy in a Swine Heart Transplant Model Receiving a Mycophenolate-Based Immunosuppressive Regimen.

CXCR4 blockade is pursued as an alternative to mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) treatment in transplantation based on our previous report that burixafor, through CXCR4 antagonism, mobilizes immunomodulatory MSCs. Here, we explored the efficacy of combining mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)-based immunosuppressants with repetitive burixafor administration.

Serosurvey for Influenza Virus Subtypes H3N8 and H3N2 Antibodies in Free-Ranging Canids in Pennsylvania, USA.

Canine influenza virus (CIV) subtypes H3N8 and H3N2 are endemic among domestic dog (XXXX XXXXX) populations in the northeastern US. Infection of free-ranging carnivores with influenza virus has been sporadically reported. Generalist mesocarnivores that exploit anthropogenic, peri-urban habitats share a wide interface with domestic dogs that allows for the transmission of infectious disease. To inv...

Interactions of organic acids with Campylobacter coli from swine.

Campylobacter coli is a bacterial species that is a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide, and Campylobacter spp. are among the top 5 foodborne pathogens in the United States. During food production organic acids (OAs) are often used to remove bacteria from animal carcasses. The interactions of six OAs with 111 C. coli strains obtained from swine and retail pork chops were studied by determin...

Pandemic Influenza Readiness Report on Laboratory and Epidemiology Capacity-United States and Territories, 2015.

Laboratory and epidemiologic data are vital to identify a novel influenza A virus and inform the public health response, whether it be to a localized outbreak or pandemic. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Pandemic Influenza Readiness Assessment (PIRA) to evaluate the state of the nation's preparedness for the next influenza pandemic. Representatives from all 62 Pu...

Serosurveillance of avian influenza (H5N6) virus infection in poultry farmers, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2016-2017.

Between November 20, 2016 and April 17, 2017, outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A/H5N6 occurred on poultry farms in Gyeonggi Province in the Republic of Korea. To identify the transmission of HPAI A/H5N6 virus to humans, a serosurvey was conducted among poultry farmers.

Typhlitis as a complication of influenza in a patient with advanced HIV infection.

The authors report the case of an HIV-infected patient who presented with typhlitis as a complication of typical influenza. To the best of their knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature with such an association of clinical conditions.

Inhibition of influenza A virus by mixed siRNAs, targeting the PA, NP, and NS genes, delivered by hybrid microcarriers.

In the present study, a highly effective carrier system has been developed for the delivery of antiviral siRNA mixtures. The developed hybrid microcarriers, made of biodegradable polymers and SiO nanostructures, more efficiently mediate cellular uptake of siRNA than commercially available liposome-based reagents and polyethyleneimine (PEI); they also demonstrate low in vitro toxicity and protectio...

Effect of Compression Waveform and Resuscitation Duration on Blood Flow and Pressure in Swine: One Waveform does not Optimally Serve.

Chest compression (CC) research primarily focuses on finding the 'optimum' compression waveform using a variety of compression efficacy metrics. Blood flow is rarely measured systematically with high fidelity. Using a programmable mechanical chest compression device, we studied the effect of inter-compression pauses in a swine model of cardiac arrest, testing the hypothesis that a single 'optimal'...

Extending the Breadth of Influenza Vaccines: Status and Prospects for a Universal Vaccine.

Despite the widespread use of seasonal influenza vaccines, there is urgent need for a universal influenza vaccine to provide broad, long-term protection. A number of factors underpin this urgency, including threats posed by zoonotic and pandemic influenza A viruses, suboptimal effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccines, and concerns surrounding the effects of annual vaccination. In this article,...

Exploring the risk of severe outcomes and the role of seasonal influenza vaccination in pregnant women hospitalized with confirmed influenza, Spain, 2010/11-2015/16.

Based on previous observations during pandemics and seasonal epidemics, pregnant women are considered at risk of developing severe influenza outcomes after influenza infection. With the aim of preventing severe influenza illness, the World Health Organization (WHO) includes pregnant women as a target group for seasonal influenza vaccination. However, influenza vaccine uptake during pregnancy remai...

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