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Top five promising drugs Phase I (February 2014) Research

07:04 EST 18th November 2017 | BioPortfolio

Effect of multi-micronutrient-fortified rice on cognitive performance depends on premix composition and cognitive function tested: results of an effectiveness study in Cambodian schoolchildren.

Even though current policy is strongly focused on the crucial first '1000 days', it might be still possible to enhance cognitive function during the pre-adolescent and adolescent years by improving micronutrient status. In Cambodia, nutritional status is poor. Provision of rice fortified with micronutrients through a school meal programme (SMP) could be a cost-effective strategy to help improve he...

White matter abnormalities in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome patients showing cognitive decline.

Decline in cognitive functioning precedes the first psychotic episode in the course of schizophrenia and is considered a hallmark symptom of the disorder. Given the low incidence of schizophrenia, it remains a challenge to investigate whether cognitive decline coincides with disease-related changes in brain structure, such as white matter abnormalities. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a...

Prediction of a new body shape index and body adiposity estimator for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Rural Chinese Cohort Study.

To compare the ability of a body shape index (ABSI) and body adiposity estimator (BAE) to BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist:height ratio (WHtR) for predicting development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in rural adult Chinese. The prospective cohort study included 11 687 eligible participants who were free of T2DM at baseline. The risk of new-onset T2DM for ABSI, BAE, BMI, WC and WHtR qui...

The Inhibitory Effects of Cobalt Protoporphyrin IX and Cannabinoid 2 Receptor Agonists in Type 2 Diabetic Mice.

The activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 inhibits neuropathy and modulates the activity of delta-opioid receptors (DOR) in type 2 diabetic mice but the impact of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway on the antinociceptive actions of cannabinoid 2 receptors (CB2R) has not been assessed. Using male mice BKS.Cg-m+/+Leprdb/J (db/db) we investigated if treatment with cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPP), an HO-1 induct...

Exposure to Sublethal Ammonia Concentrations Alters the Duration and Intensity of Agonistic Interactions in the Crayfish, Orconectes rusticus.

Crayfish extract information from chemical stimuli during social interactions. Commercial fertilizers increase background ammonia concentrations which may interfere with chemical communication. Background pollution can disrupt perception of chemical stimuli in three ways: masking, sensory impairment, physiological impairment or in combination. We investigated whether exposure to ammonia alters ago...

Peripheral endocannabinoid concentrations are not associated with verbal memory impairment during MDMA intoxication.

Preclinical data have suggested involvement of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in MDMA-induced memory impairment. Clinical research has shown that blockade of the 5-HT2 receptor nulls memory impairment during MDMA intoxication. Interestingly, studies have demonstrated that the eCB and the 5-HT system interact. It was hypothesized that MDMA would cause an increase in eCB concentrations together wi...

Genetic Approaches to the Study of Gene Variants and Their Impact on the Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes.

Diabetes mellitus is an incurable progressive disease, characterized by elevated blood glucose levels, which lead to the development of micro- and macrovascular complications. Although the etiopathology of the disease remains unclear, it seems to be multifactorial, with an important interaction between genetics and environmental causes. Currently, the genetics of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is poorly un...

iGlarLixi Reduces Glycated Hemoglobin to a Greater Extent Than Basal Insulin Regardless of Levels at Screening: Post Hoc Analysis of LixiLan-L.

The treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled on basal insulin and oral glucose-lowering drugs was investigated previously in the LixiLan-L trial. In the LixiLan-L trial, patients experienced a 6-week run-in with insulin glargine U100 (iGlar) as part of the screening phase, followed by treatment with a fixed-ratio combination of iGlar + lixisenatide (iGlarLixi) or iGlar alone over 30...

Evaluation of antioxidative and diabetes-preventive properties of an ancient grain, KAMUT(®) khorasan wheat, in healthy volunteers.

Recently, there was an increasing interest on the use of ancient grains because of their better health-related composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate in healthy human subjects the antioxidative and diabetes-preventive properties of ancient KAMUT(®) khorasan wheat compared to modern wheat.

Manuscript title: Motivation and treatment credibility predict alliance in cognitive behavioral treatment for youth with anxiety disorders in community clinics.

We examined whether motivation and treatment credibility predicted alliance in a 10-session cognitive behavioral treatment delivered in community clinics for youth anxiety disorders.

Epidemiology of Type-1 diabetes in Polish children: a multicentre cohort study.

The incidence of childhood Type-1 diabetes (T1D) varies greatly between populations and the estimates and/or predictions of the rates would aid in adequate planning of health care resources. The study's aim was to assess the incidence of T1D in the paediatric population of eastern and central Poland.

Association between Smoking and Glycemic Control in Diabetic Patients: Results from the REACTION study.

A number of primary studies suggested that active smoking could be independently associated with incident diabetes. However less is known about the impact of active smoking and smoking cessation on glycemic control in patients with diabetes. We aimed to evaluate the associations of active smoking and smoking cessation with glycemic control in diabetic patients.

Saxagliptin add-on therapy in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by insulin with or without metformin: results from the SUPER study, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

This prospective, multicentre, phase 3 study (NCT02104804) evaluated the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin add-on therapy in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by insulin ± metformin. Patients with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) 7.5%-10.5% and fasting plasma glucose (FPG)

Cognitive reserve as a variable impacting the effectiveness of rehabilitation on balance in Parkinson's disease.

Cognitive reserve (CR) can be considered an active expression of brain resilience in response to damage. Several studies have shown the influence of CR on cognitive impairment and its relationship with cognitive function in Parkinson's disease (PD).

Association Between Metformin Adherence and All-Cause Mortality Among New Users of Metformin: A Nested Case-Control Study.

Metformin presents better survival rates than other oral antidiabetics in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, these benefits may be dampened by inadequate treatment adherence.

Chronotype regulates the neural basis of response inhibition during the daytime.

Studies have elucidated the various modulatory effects of chronotype and time-of-day on task-dependent brain activity, but it is unclear how chronotype and time-of-day regulate brain activity in response inhibition tasks. To address this question, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the effects of chronotype and time-of-day on response inhibition in normal day-night con...

Is low cognitive functioning a predictor or consequence of major depressive disorder? A test in two longitudinal birth cohorts.

Cognitive impairment has been identified as an important aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD). We tested two theories regarding the association between MDD and cognitive functioning using data from longitudinal cohort studies. One theory, the cognitive reserve hypothesis, suggests that higher cognitive ability in childhood decreases risk of later MDD. The second, the scarring hypothesis, inst...

Violence exposure and neural systems underlying working memory for emotional stimuli in youth.

Violence exposure during childhood is common and associated with poor cognitive and academic functioning. However, little is known about how violence exposure influences cognitive processes that might contribute to these disparities, such as working memory, or their neural underpinnings, particularly for cognitive processes that occur in emotionally salient contexts. We address this gap in a sampl...

MAIT cells in type 1 diabetes: a good friend turned bad.

Model-Based Evaluation of Proximal Sodium Reabsorption Through SGLT2 in Health and Diabetes and the Effect of Inhibition With Canagliflozin.

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) reduce glucose levels in diabetes by inhibiting renal glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubule (PT), resulting in urinary glucose excretion. A recent large cardiovascular outcomes trial suggested that the SGLT2i empagliflozin may also decrease risk of renal dysfunction. Because sodium (Na) and glucose reabsorption are coupled through SGLT2, it ...

SGLT-2 inhibitors and ketoacidosis: a disproportionality analysis in the World Health Organization's adverse drug reactions database.

SGLT-2 inhibitors, also called gliflozins, are a new class of drugs used in type 2 diabetes. Since their marketing, several cases of ketoacidosis, including life-threatening conditions, were reported with their use. The objective of this study was to investigate the disproportionality of pharmacovigilance reports of ketoacidosis between gliflozins and other drugs used for type 2 diabetes. We perfo...

The relationship between urine pH and abnormal glucose tolerance in a community-based study.

The association between urine pH and abnormal glucose tolerance in men and women is unclear; therefore, we conducted a community-based, cross-sectional study to investigate sex-specific associations between these values, possible indicators of prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes.

Old Fashioned vs. Ultra-Processed-Based Current Diets: Possible Implication in the Increased Susceptibility to Type 1 Diabetes and Celiac Disease in Childhood.

Ultra-processed foods are ready-to-heat and ready-to-eat products created to replace traditional homemade meals and dishes due to convenience and accessibility. Because of their low-fiber and high-fat and sugar composition, these foodstuffs could induce a negative impact on health. They are partially responsible for obesity and chronic non-transmissible diseases; additionally, they could impact in...

Fasting plasma glucose in young adults free of diabetes is associated with cognitive function in midlife.

Evidence for an association of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) with cognitive function in adults free of diabetes is scarce and based on middle-aged and older adults. We examined the association of FPG, measured at age 30, and of change in FPG from age 30 to 43, with cognitive function at age 50.

Selective Attention, Working Memory, and Executive Function as Potential Independent Sources of Cognitive Dysfunction in Schizophrenia.

People with schizophrenia demonstrate impairments in selective attention, working memory, and executive function. Given the overlap in these constructs, it is unclear if these represent distinct impairments or different manifestations of one higher-order impairment. To examine this question, we administered tasks from the basic cognitive neuroscience literature to measure visual selective attentio...

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