Transplantation Research

10:56 EDT 23rd March 2019 | BioPortfolio

Acute rejection in kidney transplantation and the evaluation of associated polymorphisms (SNPs): the importance of sample size.

Background Acute rejection (AR) is one of the most frequent complications after kidney transplantation (KT). Scientific evidence reports that some single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in genes involved in the immune response and in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of immunosuppressive drugs are associated with rejection in renal transplant patients. The aim of this study was to ...

Effects of immunoadsorption combined with membrane filtration on complement markers - Results of a randomized, controlled, crossover study.

The complement system has been implicated in several kidney diseases, such as antibody-mediated rejection after kidney transplantation. Antibody-depletion techniques allow successful ABO- and/or HLA-incompatible transplantation. Considering the IgG removal, the use of semi-selective immunoadsorption (IA) has been advocated. However, because of results on incomplete IgM depletion, the adjunctive us...

Transcriptional activity of epigenetic remodeling genes declines in keratinocytes after in vitro expansion.

In vitro expansion is an invaluable method to obtain keratinocytes in amounts necessary for effective transplantation therapies. In vitro cell culturing provokes questions concerning potential epigenetic alterations occurring in expanded cells in the context of usefulness for transplantation and safety. The purpose of this study was to investigate as to whether keratinocyte expansion is associated...

Exposure of von Willebrand factor on isolated hepatocytes promotes tethering of platelets to the cell surface.

Hepatocyte transplantation is a potentially attractive method for treatment of acute liver failure and liver-based metabolic disorders. Unfortunately, the procedure is hampered by the instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction, (IBMIR), a thromboinflammatory response elicited by the vascular innate immune system, causing activation of the coagulation and complement systems and clearance of trans...

Chimerism, Transplant Tolerance and Beyond.

The present review discusses current developments in tolerance induction for solid organ transplantation with a particular emphasis on chimerism-based approaches. It explains the basic mechanisms of chimerism-based tolerance and provides an update on ongoing clinical tolerance trials. The concept of "delayed tolerance" is presented, and ongoing preclinical studies in the non-human primate setting ...

A multicenter application of the 2018 Banff Classification for BK polyomavirus-associated nephropathy in renal transplantation.

With current immunosuppressive regimens, BK polyomavirus associated nephropathy (BKPyVAN) is still a matter of concern. Stratification of patients at risk for allograft loss is of uttermost importance to guide treatment choice and assess prognosis. In 2018, the Banff working group proposed a classification scheme for the prognosis of BKPyVAN, but external application on independent cohorts has yet...

Metabolic dependence of cyclosporine A on cell proliferation of human non‑small cell lung cancer A549 cells and its implication in post‑transplant malignancy.

Cyclosporine A (CsA), a widely used immunosuppressant to prevent organ transplant rejection, is associated with an increased cancer risk following transplantation, particularly in the lung. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, using human non‑small cell lung cancer A549 cells, it was determined that CsA (0.1 or 1 µM) promoted cell proliferation with glucose...

Cyclosporine A trough concentrations are associated with acute GvHD after non-myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Low plasma CsA concentrations (

Potential value and limitations of different clinical scoring systems in the assessment of short- and long-term outcome following orthotopic liver transplantation.

In an attempt to further improve liver allograft utilization and outcome in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), a variety of clinical scoring systems have been developed. Here we aimed to comparatively investigate the association of the Balance-of-Risk (BAR), Survival-Outcomes-Following-Liver-Transplant (SOFT), Preallocation-Survival-Outcomes-Following-Liver-Transplant (pSOFT), Donor-Risk-Inde...

Excessive salt intake increases peritoneal solute transport rate via local tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein in subtotal nephrectomized mice.

High peritoneal transport is associated with high mortality and technical failure in peritoneal dialysis (PD). Baseline peritoneal solute transport rate (PSTR) as measured by the peritoneal equilibration test (PET) within 6 months after PD initiation varies between patients. Sodium is reported to be stored in the skin or muscle of dialysis patients. This study investigated whether excessive salt...

Résumé : Les candidats à une transplantation rénale doivent faire l'objet d'une évaluation complète, y compris urologique. Ce bilan urologique permet, tout d'abord, d'exclure toute pathologie de l'arbre urinaire susceptible de contre-indiquer une greffe r.

Candidates for a kidney transplantation must undergo a complete evaluation, including a urological evaluation. This urological assessment should first of all exclude any pathology of the urinary tract likely to contraindicate a transplantation or to evolve under immunosuppression. Moreover, this assessment should evaluate the lower urinary tract that is to receive a kidney graft. It is therefore n...

Outcomes of Ventral Hernia Repair in Solid Organ Transplant Patients: A Regression Analysis of the National Inpatient Sample.

Solid organ transplant has been identified as an independent risk factor in ventral hernia repair. Previous studies have generally focused on case studies or small samples. We sought to investigate the impact of liver or kidney transplant on ventral hernia repair outcomes using a nationally representative sample.

Efficacy and influencing factors of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in treatment of 71 children with leukemia.

Evaluation of Clinical and Safety Outcomes Following Uncontrolled Tacrolimus Conversion in Adult Transplant Recipients.

To compare clinical and safety outcomes of transplant recipients converted between different tacrolimus formulations to those patients who remained on a single formulation in an outpatient environment.

Association Between Time-in-Therapeutic Tacrolimus Range and Early Rejection After Heart Transplant.

Historically, there is perceived pressure to achieve therapeutic levels of tacrolimus quickly after heart transplant. We evaluated the association between time within therapeutic tacrolimus range or time to therapeutic trough and rejection in the 30 days following HT.

A case of Pneumocystis pneumonia, with a granulomatous response and Vitamin D-mediated hypercalcemia, presenting 13 years after renal transplantation.

Vitamin D-mediated hypercalcemia is an uncommon complication of Pneumocystis infection. A granulomatous response resulting from Pneumocystis infection is also atypical. In this report, we describe an exceptional case of granulomatous Pneumocystis pneumonia associated with vitamin D-mediated hypercalcemia, in a patient who presented unusually late after renal transplantation. The patient's hypercal...

Assessment of sympathetic reinnervation after cardiac transplantation using hybrid cardiac PET/MRI: A pilot study.

Sympathetic reinnervation after heart transplantation (HTX) is a known phenomenon, which has an impact on patient heart rate variability and exercise capacity. The impact of reinnervation on myocardial structure has not been evaluated yet.

Successful ceftazidime-avibactam treatment of post-surgery Burkholderia multivorans genomovar II bacteremia and brain abscesses in a young lung transplanted woman with cystic fibrosis.

Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) includes several phenotypically similar but genotypically distinct gram-negative bacteria (GNB) that can colonize the respiratory tract of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. Pathogens are difficult to treat due to intrinsic resistance to multiple antibiotics and are associated to a more rapid decline in lung function and to increased mortality, particularly after lun...

Small Split Pediatric Kidneys to Expand the Donor Pool: An analysis of Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) Data.

Increased use of pediatric deceased donor kidneys could enlarge the deceased donor kidney pool. Kidney transplant outcomes from small pediatric donors were compared with those from ideal kidney (IK) and expanded criteria kidney (ECK) donors to understand the optimal use of pediatric donor kidneys.

S1Everolimus Initiation With Early Calcineurin Inhibitor Withdrawal in De Novo Heart Transplant Recipients: Long-term Follow-up From the Randomized SCHEDULE Study.

A calcineurin inhibitor free immunosuppressive regimen has been demonstrated to improve renal function early after heart transplantation, but long-term outcome of such a strategy has not been well described.

Cutaneous gummatous tuberculosis in a kidney transplant patient.

Cutaneous gummatous tuberculosis (TB) is an uncommon subtype of cutaneous TB that can be seen in notably immunocompromised individuals. We report a case of cutaneous gummatous TB in an immunosuppressed kidney transplant patient. A 60-year-old Cambodian woman presented with fever attributed to recurrent pyelonephritis while on immunosuppressive medications 7 months after kidney transplant. She unde...

Terminal ileitis after kidney transplantation : Crohn's disease or other? Case reports and literature review.

The finding of a terminal ileitis after kidney transplantation can cause a diagnostic challenge. Because the development of Crohn's disease under immunosuppressive therapy is unlikely, this diagnosis should only be considered after exclusion of infectious disease and drug-related intestinal toxicity. Defining the underlying cause of terminal ileitis is often hampered by a shortage of specific diag...

Perioperative management of renal transplant patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty.

The success of renal transplantation depends on lifelong immunosuppression. This can lead to a high incidence of avascular necrosis of major joints in the body for which arthroplasty is the treatment of choice. The risk of surgical complications is high in these patients, and there is no current set of cohesive perioperative management guidelines. In this review, we discuss the perioperative manag...

Does Immunosuppression Help Control Alopecia Areata? A Study in Transplant Recipients.

Alopecia areata (AA) is a polygenic autoimmune disease. The immunosuppressant drugs taken by patients who undergo solid organ transplantation might therefore be useful in its control. The literature, however, contains conflicting information in this regard. This contribution describes seven patients with AA, all of whom had undergone solid organ transplantation and were receiving treatment with im...

Passenger Lymphocyte Syndrome after Pediatric Liver Transplantation.

Passenger lymphocyte syndrome (PLS) is a less known etiology of acute onset anemia following ABO-compatible (ABO-c) liver transplantation (LT). Available literature on PLS following pediatric LT is limited. Therefore, we evaluated the prevalence, clinical course and risk factors of PLS in children following ABO-c LT.

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