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Vaccines Research

01:07 EST 17th February 2019 | BioPortfolio

Toward a Model of HPV Vaccine Series Completion in Adolescent Hispanic Males: Identifying Mothers' Salient Behavioral, Normative, and Control Beliefs.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series completion among adolescent Hispanic males (35%) is lower than the Healthy People 2020 80% goal. This directed qualitative content analysis identified mothers' beliefs about their sons completing the series. We found that mothers (N = 19) (1) express positive feelings; (2) believe the vaccine has positive effects; (3) identify the father and doctors as sup...

Rapid assessment of enhanced safety surveillance for influenza vaccine.

The enhanced safety surveillance for seasonal influenza vaccines established by the European Medicines Agency is required each season. Therefore, a registry capable of rapidly detecting and evaluating potential new safety concerns is needed. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the vaccine information system of the Valencia region to make a rapid assessment of the influenza ...

Interim Estimates of 2018-19 Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness - United States, February 2019.

In the United States, annual vaccination against seasonal influenza is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months (https://www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/whoshouldvax.htm). Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine varies by season. During each influenza season since 2004-05, CDC has estimated the effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine to prevent laboratory-confirmed influenza associated with me...

Immunoprofiling of peripheral blood from infectious bronchitis virus vaccinated MHC-B chicken lines - Monocyte MHC-II expression as a potential correlate of protection.

Vaccination programs are implemented in poultry farms to limit outbreaks and spread of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), which is a substantial economic burden in the poultry industry. Immune correlates, used to predict vaccine efficacy, have proved difficult to find for IBV-vaccine-induced protection. To find correlates of IBV-vaccine-induced protection, hence, we employed a flow cytometric assa...

Measles outbreaks in Italy: A paradigm of the re-emergence of vaccine-preventable diseases in developed countries.

Over the last decade, outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases have been reported in developed countries around the world. In particular, measles outbreaks have been ongoing in the European Union since 2017, with the majority of cases concentrated in Romania and Italy. Measles has been identified as a powerful indicator of the status of vaccination programs in a region, as outbreaks have been rep...

Prenatal vaccination of mothers and hepatitis B vaccination of their infants.

Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination and influenza vaccination are recommended during pregnancy primarily to prevent influenza and pertussis in mothers and their infants. This study examines associations between prenatal Tdap vaccination and influenza vaccination of mothers and hepatitis B vaccination of their infants. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using dat...

G1P8 Rotavirus in children with severe diarrhea in the post-vaccine introduction era in Brazil: Evidence of reassortments and structural modifications of the antigenic VP7 and VP4 regions.

Worldwide rotaviruses A (RVA) are responsible for approximately 215,000 deaths annually among children aged 50% of gastroenteritis cases in this age group. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic variability of G1P[8] strains detected in children with severe diarrhea in Belém, Pará, Brazil, during the post-rotavirus vaccine introduction era. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the VP4 and VP...

Two Randomized Trials of Effect of Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine on Pneumococcal Colonization.

Six-month follow up of a randomized clinical trial-phase I study in Indonesian adults and children: Safety and immunogenicity of Salmonella typhi polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid (Vi-DT) conjugate vaccine.

There is a high global incidence of typhoid fever, with an annual mortality rate of 200,000 deaths. Typhoid fever also affects younger children, particularly in resource-limited settings in endemic countries. Typhoid vaccination is an important prevention tool against typhoid fever. However, the available polysaccharide typhoid vaccines are not recommended for children under 2 years of age. A new ...

Effect of Previous-Season Influenza Vaccination on Serologic Response in Children During 3 Seasons, 2013-2014 Through 2015-2016.

The effects of repeated influenza vaccination in children are not well understood. In this study, we evaluated previous vaccination effects on antibody response after vaccination with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) or quadrivalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) among school-aged children (5-17 years) across 3 seasons.

Gaps in Vaccine Coverage and Adverse Effects of Vaccines - An Overview.

The success of vaccination programs is jeopardized by gaps in vaccine coverage of the target population. These are frequently due to a lack of awareness, but also result from misconceptions of adverse effects of vaccines. Subject of this article are the current vaccination rates of children, adolescents and adults as well as of medical personnel in Germany, the reporting and surveillance system fo...

Salmonella-vectored vaccine delivering three Clostridium perfringens antigens protects poultry against necrotic enteritis.

Necrotic enteritis is an economically important poultry disease caused by the bacterium Clostridium perfringens. There are currently no necrotic enteritis vaccines commercially available for use in broiler birds, the most important target population. Salmonella-vectored vaccines represent a convenient and effective option for controlling this disease. We used a single attenuated Salmonella vaccine...

Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Against Hospitalization in Fully and Partially Vaccinated Children in Israel; 2015-16, 2016-17, and 2017-18.

Influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) varies by season, circulating influenza strain, age, and geographic location. There have been few studies of influenza VE among hospitalized children, particularly in Europe and the Middle East.

Principal Controversies in Vaccine Safety in the United States.

Concerns about vaccine safety can lead to decreased acceptance of vaccines and resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases. We summarize the key evidence on some of the main current vaccine safety controversies in the United States, including: 1) MMR vaccine and autism; 2) thimerosal, a mercury-based vaccine preservative, and the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders; 3) vaccine-induced Guillain-Bar...

Impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction in children less than 2 years of age presenting for medical care with diarrhea in rural Matlab, Bangladesh.

Following the conclusion of a Rotarix vaccine (HRV) cluster-randomized controlled trial (CRT) in Matlab, Bangladesh, HRV was included in Matlab's routine immunization program. We describe the population-level impact of programmatic rotavirus vaccination in Bangladesh in children

Caution required in the use of administrative data and general laboratory submissions for influenza vaccine effectiveness estimation.

Phase I/II trial testing safety and immunogenicity of the multipeptide IMA950/poly-ICLC vaccine in newly diagnosed adult malignant astrocytoma patients.

Peptide vaccines offer the opportunity to elicit glioma-specific T cells with tumor killing ability. Using antigens eluted from the surface of glioblastoma samples, we designed a phase I/II study to test safety and immunogenicity of the IMA950 multipeptide vaccine adjuvanted with poly-ICLC in HLA-A2 + glioma patients.

Adenovirus 4 and 7 vaccine: New Body Armor for Marine Officer Trainees.

Expression and active testing of VP7 from GCRV (Grass carp reovirus) fused with cholera toxin B subunit in rice calli.

Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is one of the most serious pathogens threatening grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) production and results in high mortality in China. VP7 from GCRV is involved in viral infection and could be suitable for developing vaccines for the control of GCRV infection. To obtain a genetically engineered vaccine and a plant-based oral vaccine and to evaluate their immune effica...

Perceptions of cervical cancer prevention on Twitter uncovered by different sampling strategies.

Cervical cancer prevention is possible through use of the HPV vaccine and Pap tests, yet the vaccine remains underutilized.

Novel genetically-modified chimpanzee adenovirus and MVA-vectored respiratory syncytial virus vaccine safely boosts humoral and cellular immunity in healthy older adults.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes respiratory infection across the world, with infants and the elderly at particular risk of developing severe disease and death. The replication-defective chimpanzee adenovirus (PanAd3-RSV) and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA-RSV) vaccines were shown to be safe and immunogenic in young healthy adults. Here we report an extension to this first-in-man vacc...

Prevention and treatment of cervical cancer by a single administration of human papillomavirus peptide vaccine with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides as an adjuvant in vivo.

No licensed therapeutic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is currently available, so it remains a high priority to develop a therapeutic HPV vaccine or prophylactic/therapeutic HPV vaccine for cervical cancer. In this current study, we designed an HPV vaccine including CpG oligodeoxynucleotides 1826 as an adjuvant and HPV16 E7 43-77 peptide as antigen, which contains a CD8 T cell epitope (E7 49-5...

Evaluation of correlates of protection against influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 infection: Applications to the hospitalized patient population.

Influenza vaccines are important for prevention of influenza-associated hospitalization. However, the effectiveness of influenza vaccines can vary by year and influenza type and subtype and mechanisms underlying this variation are incompletely understood. Assessments of serologic correlates of protection can support interpretation of influenza vaccine effectiveness in hospitalized populations.

Short communication: Oral and intranasal administration of a modified-live Salmonella Dublin vaccine in dairy calves: Clinical efficacy and serologic response.

Our objectives were to evaluate the clinical efficacy of oral and intranasal administration of a commercial modified-live Salmonella Dublin vaccine in dairy calves and to determine the serologic response associated with these extralabel routes of administration. We conducted a randomized field trial with calves from a New York dairy farm following an outbreak of Salmonella Dublin. A total of 399 H...

Highly conserved epitopes of DENV structural and non-structural proteins: Candidates for universal vaccine targets.

Dengue is a severe emerging arthropod borne viral disease occurring globally. Around two fifths of the world's population, or up to 3.9 billion people, are at a risk of dengue infection. Infection induces a life-long protective immunity to the homologous serotype but confers only partial and transient protection against subsequent infection caused by other serotypes. Thus, there is a need for a va...

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