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Veterinary Research

22:43 EDT 22nd May 2019 | BioPortfolio

Neurological abnormalities in 97 dogs with detectable pituitary masses.

Pituitary tumors are common neoplasms of the sellar region in small animals. However, detailed information regarding the spectrum and severity of possible neurological signs are lacking.

Do arachidonic acid metabolites affect apoptosis in bovine endometrial cells with silenced PPAR genes?

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are expressed in bovine uterus, and their agonists are arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites. We hypothesised that silencing of PPAR genes in bovine endometrial stromal cells (ESC) would change the intracellular signalling through PPAR and affect apoptosis after cell treatment with different AA metabolites. The study's aims are detection of apoptosis...

Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Respiration Is Elevated in Female Cynomolgus Macaques Fed a Western Compared with a Mediterranean Diet.

Western diets are associated with increased incidences of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia, whereas Mediterranean diets, richer in polyphenols, monounsaturated fats, fruits, vegetables, poultry, and fish, appear to have cardiometabolic health benefits. Previous work has included population-based studies with limited evidence for causation or animal studies focused on singl...

Intermediate patellar ligament desmopathy often occurs in conjunction with other stifle abnormalities.

Intermediate patellar ligament (IPL) desmopathy is a relatively uncommon injury previously reported to have a poor prognosis for return to athletic activity. There is little documentation of the clinical and ultrasonographic features, clinical significance, and outcome for return to work following IPL injury in horses. The aim of this retrospective descriptive study was to describe the clinical an...

The prevalence of Leptospira among invasive small mammals on Puerto Rican cattle farms.

Leptospirosis, an emerging infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira, is thought to be the most widespread zoonotic disease in the world. A first step in preventing the spread of Leptospira is delineating the animal reservoirs that maintain and disperse the bacteria. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) methods targeting the LipL32 gene were used to analyze kidney samples from 124 House mic...

Suture length to wound length ratio in 175 small animal abdominal midline closures.

Experimental and human studies have reported the advantages of a suture length to wound length (SL:WL) ratio greater than 4:1 in midline abdominal closure. This is achieved when the tissue bite (TB) is equal to or larger than the stitch interval (SI). Although TB and SI values are recommended in some textbooks, SL:WL ratios are rarely reported in veterinary textbooks. Additionally, no clinical dat...

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) seroprevalence: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is the most widespread, tick-borne viral disease affecting humans and therefore this paper performed a meta-analysis to highlight seroprevalence features of CCHF in a global context. After a preliminary review of the 396 papers representing areas throughout the world, 206 were selected for detailed meta-analysis. In general the total means of CCHF seropreval...

The relationship between the presence of antibodies and direct detection of Toxoplasma gondii in slaughtered calves and cattle in four European countries.

In cattle, antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii infection are frequently detected, but evidence for the presence of T. gondii tissue cysts in cattle is limited. To study the concordance between the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG and viable tissue cysts of T. gondii in cattle, serum, liver and diaphragm samples of 167 veal calves and 235 adult cattle were collected in Italy, the Netherlands, Romania and...

Molecular characterization of highly pathogenic Eimeria species among beef cattle on Java Island, Indonesia.

Gastrointestinal parasites including Eimeria spp. are known to affect domestic animal productivity causing watery or lethal bloody diarrhea. However, there are few reports on the detailed distribution of bovine Eimeria spp. in cattle, particularly in developing tropical and sub-tropical areas. Using a total of 289 fecal samples collected from beef cattle on Java Island, one of the five main island...

Retrospective multivariate analysis of pharmaceutical preparations using H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy: Example of 990 heparin samples.

NMR spectroscopy has become an essential diagnostic tool for pharmaceutical preparations worldwide, with many runs performed annually on a routine basis. In this study multivariate analysis was performed on a big dataset of 990 NMR heparin spectra recorded over six years (2012-2017) in our laboratory. Several steps of statistical analysis of accumulated data were used to differentiate samples acco...

Evaluation of post-mortem diagnostic tests' sensitivity and specificity for bovine tuberculosis using Bayesian latent class analysis.

This study aimed to evaluate the performance of real-time PCR (qPCR), ELISA IDEXX™, and bacterial isolation as post-mortem diagnostic tests in animals with lesions compatible with bovine tuberculosis detected by Brazilian Federal Inspection Service as part of the bovine tuberculosis active surveillance. Bayesian latent class models were used to estimate diagnostic tests' sensitivity, specificity...

Comparison of the therapeutic efficacy of salicylic acid paste with a polyurethane wound dressing for the treatment of digital dermatitis lesions in dairy cows.

There is little evidence of the efficacy of artificial polymers for controlling bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) as a major problem of intensive dairy productions worldwide. We therefore aimed to compare salicylic acid (SA)-based paste with a polyurethane (PU) wound dressing on a German Holstein dairy farm over a maximum 56-d period. On d 0, 109 ft with active BDD lesions from 109 cows were rando...

Polydatin and I-CBP112 protects early bovine embryo against nicotinamide-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.

The mammalian Sirtuin family of seven enzymes, members of the NAD-dependent histone deacetylase family that modify histones via direct deacetylation, is involved in the regulation of many antioxidant and oxidative stresses. In the present study, we explored the effects of nicotinamide (NAM)-induced oxidative stress on the in vitro development of bovine embryos, on the acetylation of histone H3 ly...

High through-put determination of 28 veterinary antibiotic residues in swine wastewater by one-step dispersive solid phase extraction sample cleanup coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

We developed a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method for the high through-put determination of 28 common veterinary antibiotics in swine wastewater using one-step dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) for sample cleanup and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for detection. The orthogonal test method was used to systematically investigate...

Screening and identification of a human domain antibody against Brucella abortus VirB5.

Brucellosis is caused by the genus Brucella. Brucella is widely distributed in cattle, swine, sheep, goat and other mammals including human. Animal brucellosis causes severe economic losses and affects related international transportation and trade. Human brucellosis causes both acute and chronic symptoms of multi-organ dysfunction. Brucella type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB5 was required for m...

Analysis of neurofilament concentration in healthy adult horses and utility in the diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis and equine motor neuron disease.

Neurofilaments (NFs) are structural proteins of neurons that are released in significant quantities in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood as a result of neuronal degeneration or axonal damage. Therefore, NFs have potential as biomarkers for neurologic disorders. Neural degeneration increases with age and has the potential to confound the utility of NFs as biomarkers in the diagnosis of neurologic d...

12 novel atypical porcine pestivirus genomes from neonatal piglets with congenital tremors: A newly emerging branch and high prevalence in China.

Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV), a newly discovered member of the genus Pestivirus, is considered to be associated with congenital tremors (CT) in piglets. From June 2016 to January 2018, 440 serum and tissue samples from CT-affected piglets in Anhui, Guangdong and Guangxi provinces were collected to detect APPV. The results showed a high level of 63.4% preference for APPV in 27 swine farms and...

The effects of bolt length on penetration hole characteristics, brain damage and specified-risk material dispersal in finished cattle stunned with a penetrating captive bolt stunner.

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of captive bolt lengths on penetration hole characteristics, brain damage, and specified risk material (SRM) dispersal. Cattle were stunned with a pneumatic captive bolt stunner using: standard (15.2 cm; STRD), medium (16.5 cm; MED), or long (17.8 cm; LON) bolts. Heads (N = 293) and exsanguination blood (N = 103) were collected fo...

Luteal activity following follicular drainage of subordinate follicles for twin pregnancy prevention in bi-ovular dairy cows.

Twin pregnancy is undesirable in dairy cattle. This study examines luteal activity following ultrasound-guided puncture and drainage of the smaller pre-ovulatory follicle at timed AI in cows with a pre-ovulatory follicle in each ovary. Luteal activity was determined through Doppler ultrasonography and plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations. The effects of GnRH treatment on Day 7 post-AI on subseq...

Antimicrobial resistance and presence of virulence factor genes in Trueperella pyogenes isolated from pig lungs with pneumonia.

Trueperella pyogenes (T. pyogenes) is a worldwide known pathogen of domestic ruminants and pigs causing a wide variety of infections. The objective of this study was to report the presence of major virulence genes in T. pyogenes isolated from pigs with respiratory clinical signs and determine their resistance to antibiotics at the same time. A total of 27 T. pyogenes strains were obtained from Jil...

Comparison of cardiovascular parameter estimation methods using swine data.

In this study, new and existing methods of estimating stroke volume, cardiac output and total peripheral resistance from analysis of the arterial blood pressure waveform were tested over a wide range of conditions. These pulse contour analysis methods (PCMs) were applied to data obtained in six swine during infusion of volume, phenylephrine, dobutamine, isoproterenol, esmolol and nitroglycerine as...

RNA-Seq-based transcriptomic profiling of primary interstitial cells of Cajal in response to bovine viral diarrhea virus infection.

Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) contribute significantly to health-related economic losses in the beef and dairy industries and are widespread throughout the world. Severe acute BVDV infection is characterized by a gastrointestinal (GI) inflammatory response. The mechanism of inflammatory lesions caused by BVDV remains unknown. The interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) network plays...

The effect of subchronic oral exposure to zearalenone on hematologic and biochemical analytes, and the blood redox status of adult rabbit bucks.

Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycoestrogen with a ubiquitous presence in animal feeds, which also has hematotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, and immunotoxic properties. However, there is a paucity of literature that discusses the effects of ZEN on rabbits.

Baculoviral Expression of Presumptive OP-Resistance Mutations in BmAChE1 of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and Biochemical Resistance to OP Inhibition.

The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini), transmits bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis, and is endemic to Mexico, Latin and South America. Rhipicephalus (B.) microplus infestations within the United States are a continuing threat to U.S. cattle producers. An importation barrier between Texas and Mexico keeps the ticks from re-entering the United States. All cattle...

Modified stall-side crossmatch for transfusions in horses.

After-hours or out-of-clinic crossmatches are often limited by the lack of access to specialized material and technical expertise.

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